Generalized strategy for the successful expression of plasmodial proteins. Extensive sequence analysis of a gene could facilitate genetic manipulation of the gene if needed. E. coli should remain the starting point for the expression of soluble proteins due to its ease of use and Xenopus remains the preferred choice for membrane protein expression. Several optimizations including codon adaptation, plasmodial chaperone co-expression and small sequence changes might be particularly necessary for the expression of the plasmodial protein of interest. Various other expression hosts including mammalian, baculovirus, yeasts, Toxoplasma, Dictyostelium and cell free systems have been used with various levels of success and might include an iterative process incorporating necessary optimizations.