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Table 4 Comparison of mean human biting rates (HBR) of An. gambiae s.l. and Culex sp. and entomological inoculation rate (EIR) for An. gambiae s.l. in the intervention and non-intervention wards during baseline and first year of intervention. 95% confidence intervals in parenthesis.

From: A tool box for operational mosquito larval control: preliminary results and early lessons from the Urban Malaria Control Programme in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

  Pre-Interventiona First intervention yearb Percentage Reduction
  Non-Intervention Wards Intervention Wards p c Non-Intervention Wards Intervention Wards p  
Annual mean
Daily HBR An. gambiae 0.93 (0.60–1.46) 0.72 (0.51–1.02) 0.367 0.94 (0.57–1.56) 0.50 (0.38–0.68) 0.040 31.3%
Annual EIR An. gambiae 1.05 (0.68–1.65) 0.81 (0.58–1.15)   1.06 (0.64–1.77) 0.56 (0.43–0.77)   
Daily HBR Culex sp. 173.9 (140.7–214.9) 86.8 (72.7–103.7) <0.001 171.5 (137.2–214.3) 86.1 (70.9–104.4) <0.001 0%
Dry season mean (July-August-September)
Daily HBR An. gambiae 0.59 (0.32–1.11) 0.46 (0.29–0.72) 0.505 1.17 (0.56–2.47) 0.12 (0.08–0.20) <0.001 86.8%
EIR An. gambiae 0.67 (0.36–1.26) 0.52 (0.33–0.81)   1.32 (0.63–2.79) 0.14 (0.09–0.22)   
Daily HBR Culex sp. 196.3 (157.9–244.0) 98.4 (82.2–117.9) <0.001 151.1 (125.3–192.0) 86.1 (67.1–110.6) <0.001 0%
  1. a April 2005 – March 2006; March 2006 has been included in the calculation for the baseline year since reductions of adult mosquitoes due to larviciding cannot be expected earlier than 3–4 weeks into the intervention [36].
  2. b April 2006 – March 2007.
  3. c Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to analyse pre-intervention data and data from the first year of intervention, respectively. In each analyses mean densities are compared between non-intervention and intervention sites. Ten-cell units were used as a subject unit, log linked mosquito densities and intervention and non-intervention areas as the factor.