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Table 2 Peripheral levels of cytokines and other soluble factors stratified by parity and PM status.*

From: Maternal peripheral blood level of IL-10 as a marker for inflammatory placental malaria

  Primigravidae Multigravidae
Factor PM- (n = 166) PM+ (n = 39) P PM- (n = 415) PM+ (n = 40) P
TNF 22.9 [8.3–46.7] 62.1 [26.3–127.5] <0.0001 18.7 [8.70–37.9] 57.7 [23.8–84.7] 0.0002
TNF- RI 948 [550–1411] 1374 [851–2290] 0.0003 812 [481–1249] 1004 [517–1580] 0.0978
TNF- RII 186 [0–494] 673 [260–1425] <0.0001 190 [0–403] 590 [129–959] <0.0001
IL-1 2.28 [0.72–4.36] 5.05 [1.70–11.3] 0.0018 2.06 [0.73–4.46] 3.06 [0.32–7.36] 0.1409
IL-4 0.0 [0.0-0.0] 0.0 [0.0-0.0] 0.7676 0.0 [0.0-0.0] 0.0 [0.0-0.0] 0.9054
IL-5 1.96 [0.39–4.21] 1.76 [0.12–3.32] 0.4215 2.09 [0.39–4.09] 1.90 [0.89–5.89] 0.3158
IL-6 18.4 [9.26–37.6] 29.3 [15.0–42.5] 0.083 13.1 [3.75–29.5] 13.2 [8.83–19.2] 0.7618
IL-10 5.69 [3.28–11.3] 23.4 [15.1–62.7] <0.0001 6.12 [2.91–11.6] 22.2 [13.9–40.3] <0.0001
IFN-γ 0.0 [0.0-0.0] 0.0 [0.0–3.67] 0.5083 0.0 [0.0-0.0] 0.0 [0.0-0.0] 0.6607
Leptin 2404 [973–6218] 1029 [658–4115] 0.0245 2161 [1014–5293] 1490 [452–5052] 0.3444
Ferritin 14.0 [8.00–32.4] 62.7 [20.8–144.8] <0.0001 11.6 [6.7–25.9] 40.4 [19.3–82.0] <0.0001
  1. *Data are presented as median [interquartile ranges]. P-values were calculated by Mann-Whitney test.