Network diagram of P. vivax dhfr and flanking. Note that only haplotypes with more than one isolate are included in the diagram. Coloured circles represent dhfr and flanking haplotypes; lines represent mutational steps connecting haplotypes, and black nodes represent hypothetical ancestral haplotypes or haplotypes present in the population but not sampled. Colour coding is as follows: wildtype, blue; 58R/117N, green; 117N, orange; 57L/58R, pink; 57L/61M/117T/173F, yellow; 58R/61M/117T, grey; 57I(L)/58R/61M/1117T, red. Note the wide separation between the Thai and Indonesian quadruple mutant alleles, and the triple and quadruple mutants from PNG and Vanuatu.