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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the volunteers.

From: Anti-Anopheles darlingi saliva antibodies as marker of Plasmodium vivax infection and clinical immunity in the Brazilian Amazon

Variable   Plasmodium vivax current infection P value
Non-infected Asymptomatic Symptomatic
  (n = 80) (n = 50) (n = 74)  
Age – years* 30 (23–44.5) 44.5 (34.5–51) 27.5 (21–37) 0.0341†
Malaria episodes referred* 13.5 (11–18) 17.5 (13–21) 7 (1–13) 0.0283†
Time residing in the area – years     0.0185‡
   <2 25 (31.3%) 8 (16%) 31 (41.9%)  
   3–10 12 (15%) 12 (24%) 16 (21.6%)  
   >10 43 (53.7%) 30 (60%) 27 (36.5%)  
Parasitaemia – parasites/μL     < 0.0001‡
   ND§ 80 (100%) 3 (6%) § 0  
   100–<500 0 44 (88%) 34 (45.9%)  
   500–<5,000 0 3 (6%) 5 (6.8%)  
   5,000–<50,000 0 0 30 (40.5%)  
   >50,000 0 0 5 (6.8%)  
IgG anti-SGS – O.D.* 0.06 (0.04–0.09) 0.13 (0.08–0.26) 0.095 (0.07–0.14) < 0.0001†
Plasma IL-10 – pg/mL* 12.6 (7.4–19.2) 64.5 (7.3–86.0) 23.4 (9.5–58.4) NS†
Plasma IFN-γ – pg/mL* 14.2 (0–32.0) 44.0 (10.5–101.0) 75.5 (38.8–243.5) NS†
  1. * Values plotted represent media and range
  2. † Ordinal variables were compared between groups Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn's multiple comparison test.
  3. ‡ Categorized variables were compared using chi-squared test. P values obtained in each test are plotted.
  4. §ND: Six patients, out of 50 were negative for malaria infection by light microscopy, but were positive for P. vivax infection by nested PCR.
  5. NS: Non significant.