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Table 1 Percentage change in malaria and non-malaria cases and deaths in 2007 compared to pre-intervention reference period, in selected health facilities, in persons < 5 years and ≥ 5 years, Ethiopia and Rwanda, from January to October each year. Positive percentage indicates decline, negative percentage indicates an increase.

From: Initial evidence of reduction of malaria cases and deaths in Rwanda and Ethiopia due to rapid scale-up of malaria prevention and treatment

   MALARIA NON-MALARIA
Indicator Age (years) Annual average, reference period 2007 Decline in 2007 Annual average, reference period 2007 Decline in 2007
     Observed, compared to average over 2001–5/6* Adjusted for linear trend over 2001–5/6† (95% CI)    Observed, compared to average over 2001–5/6* Adjusted for linear trend over 2001–5/6† (95% CI)
Rwanda          
In-patient cases < 5 7,686 3,473 55% 64% (60–68)‡ 6,043 7,793 -29% 9% (-7 – 20)
  5+ 10,250 4,403 57% 59% (53–64)‡ 27,384 45,275 -65% -7% (-20 – -3)
  All 17,936 7,876 56% 61% (57–65)‡ 33,427 53,068 -59% -5% (-17 – -6)
In-patient deaths < 5 153 51 67% 68% (56–75)‡ 221 259 -17% 4% (-20 – 21)
  5+ 207 187 10% 8% (-32 – 29) 644 939 -46% -10%(-30 – -6)
  All 360 238 34% 34% (9–48)‡ 865 1,198 -39% -6% (-27 – -9)
Laboratory-confirmed out-patient cases < 5 11,216 4,665 58% 63% (55–68)‡ 38,996 61,108 -57% 4% (-7 – 13)
  5+ 19,221 9,254 52% 54% (39–62)‡ 120,587 210,644 -75% 3% (-5 – 10)
  All 30,437 13,919 54% 57% (46–64)‡ 159,583 271,752 -70% 4% (-5 – 11)
Ethiopia          
In-patient cases < 5 866 232 73% 83% (79–86)‡ 1,140 1,245 -9% 25% (20 – 30)‡
  5+ 3,381 1,093 68% 69% (6–82)‡ 5,993 7,968 -33% 11% (4 – 16)‡
  All 4,540 1,357 70% 75% (51–84)‡ 7,263 9,391 -29% 14% (8 – 19)
In-patient deaths < 5 11 4 62% Too few data 23 20 13% Too few data
  5+ 28 7 75% 3% (-103 – 54%) 65 45 31% -117% (-150 – -71)
  All 135 28 79% 84% (67–89)‡ 294 408 -39% -10% (-24 – -2)
Laboratory-confirmed out-patient cases < 5 5,495 801 85% 69% (45–83%)‡ 30,228 43,688 -45% -15% (-30 – -3)‡
  5+ 17,903 2,841 84% 91% (87–93)‡ 160,339 162,565 -1% 20% (12 – 26)‡
  All 31,493 6,131 81% 85% (77–89)‡ 184,777 209,244 -13% 4% (-7 – 12)
  1. * Reference period was 2001–2006 for Rwanda and 2001–2005 for Ethiopia
  2. † Percentage change was calculated by comparing reported number of cases/deaths in 2007 with predicted number of cases/deaths in 2007 based on linear trend of 2001 to 2005/6.
  3. ‡ Significant difference. A 95% CI not including the 0% value indicates that the difference in 2007 compared to the pre-intervention period was statistically significant (p < 0.025).