Survival of Anopheles gambiae larvae. (A: mortality 24 hours post-treatment; B: delayed mortality, i.e. inability to pupate) and pupae (C) following a 40°C thermal stress of variable duration. Open circles and solid lines refer to 2L+a/+a, and closed diamonds and dashed lines refer to 2La/a karyotypes. Bars represent standard error of the mean of 6 repeats for each time interval. Points referring to 2La/a karyotypes are slightly shifted to the right of the appropriate value on the abscissa for visualization purposes.