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Table 1 Frequency of genuine and fake artesunate at 180 pharmacies/shops selling medicines sample at random in Laos.

From: A stratified random survey of the proportion of poor quality oral artesunate sold at medicine outlets in the Lao PDR – implications for therapeutic failure and drug resistance

First Collection – randomly selected licensed pharmacies and shops selling medicines in 12 districts in 6 Lao provinces
Province District No. pharmacies/shops selling medicines recorded No. pharmacies/shops selling medicines sampled Pharmacies/shops from which artesunate bought No (%) selling counterfeit artesunate % slides positive for P. falciparum malaria/province in 2003 (number of slides checked)
Northern Provinces
Phongsaly
Phongsaly
8/3 7/3 0/0 - 1.5 (1,660)
Phongsaly
May
2/3 2/3 0/0 -  
Udomxay
Xay
24/2 7/2 1/0 1 (100) 12 (4,389)
Udomxay
Namor
5/2 5/2 0/0 -  
Xayabury
Paklai
24/3 7/3 1/0a 0 (0) 1.4 (21,486)
Xayabuly Khorb 7/2 7/2 0/0 -  
Southern Provinces
Vientiane City
Sisattanak
76/0 7/0 0/- - 0.2 (1,008)
Vientiane City
Maypaknum
15/0 7/0 0/- -  
Borikhamxay
Bolikanh
15/2 7/2 0/0 - 1.5 (274)
Borikhamxay
Khamkueth
24/0 7/0 0/- -  
Sekong
Thateng
6/0 6/0 2/- 2 (100) 17.5 (7,149)
Sekong
Dakcheung
4/0 4/0 3/- 3 (100)  
Total 210+17 = 227 73+17 = 90 7/0 6 (86) 5.9 (35,966)
Second collection – randomly selected pharmacies in all 6 Lao cities (excluding Vientiane) of > 20,000 people
City No. pharmacies recorded No. pharmacies sampled Pharmacies from which artesunate bought No (%) selling counterfeit artesunate % slides positive for P. falciparum malaria/province in 2003 (number of slides checked)
Northern Provinces
Luangphrabang 51 15 0 - 4.6 (16,455)
Xiengkhuang 47 15 1a 0 (0) 0.4 (6,856)
Southern Provinces
Thakhek 68 15 0/ - 2.5 (37,980)
Savannakhet 56 15 6 6 (100)b 11.8 (60,238)
Saravane 23 15 4c 3 (75) 11.8 (29,017)
Pakse 59 15 7d 7 (100) 6.4 (40,523)
Total 304 90 18 16 (89) 7.8 (191,069)
Overall Total 514+17 = 531 163+17 = 180 25 22 (88) 7.5 (227,035)
  1. Geographical names follow [44]. For the First Collection the district in the first row is the urban district and the second row is the rural district.
  2. a genuine labeled as manufactured by Mekophar; b duplicates of artesunate bought at 5 pharmacies in Savannakhet (see Additional File 1);
  3. c genuine labeled as manufactured by Pharbaco d insufficient packaging available for one sample to judge whether counterfeit or genuine but chemistry demonstrated wrong active ingredients and therefore classed as counterfeit.