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Table 1 Factors associated with Plasmodium infection in children below 5 years old in Equatorial Guinea for rural and urban populations

From: Nutritional and socio-economic factors associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection in children from Equatorial Guinea: results from a nationally representative survey

   RURAL URBAN
   Plasmodium infection*      Plasmodium infection*    
Factor N (%)† n (%) se Unadj. P Adjusted Odds ratio (95% CI) Adj. P N (%)† n (%) se Unadj. P Adjusted Odds ratio (95% Cl)‡ Adj. P
Child age             
0-5 months 37(11,4) 11(22.4) 8.5   Reference   28 (11.4) 8(25.9) 11.0   Reference  
6-11 months 53(16.8) 26 (49.1) 8.6   2.54 (0.75,8.67)   41 (17.5) 11 (42.4) 17.5   6.42(1.08, 38.06)  
12-23 months 74 (25,6) 44 (59.9) 6.4   3.81(1.30,11.17)   58(23.5) 18(30) 6.0   3.50(0.82,14.87)  
24-59 months 144 (46,2) 99 (70.5) 5.8   7.82(3.42,17.92)   113(47.6) 60 (55.7) 6.3   13.94(3.10,62.62)  
p for trend§     0.0008   <.0001     0.07   0.004
Sex             
female 147 (43.9) 85 (60.3) 7.1   Reference   118(47.9) 43 (45.8) 7.8   Reference  
male 163 (56.1) 96 (57.6) 4.8 0.70 0.85(0.48,1.51) 0.28 124(52.0) 54(41.7) 6.4 0.60 1.49(0.75,2.97) 0.25
Distance to closest health facility in km             
less than 0.5 kms 184 (55.6) 102 (51.8) 6.7   Reference   149 (58.8) 57 (44.3) 9.1 ...   
between 0.5 and 10 kms 91 (27.5) 50 (58.1) 7.1   1.19(0.47,2.89)   93(41.2) 40 (42.7) 7.2 0.86 ...  
10 kms or more 35(16.9) 29 (82.7) 4.4   2.86(1.35, 6.03)       ...  
p for trend§     0.005   0.01       
% of households with access to protected water in the community             
less than 30% 120 (42.1) 72 (66.2) 7.1   Reference   34(18.7) 19(53.7) 9   ...  
between 30 and 60% 117 (38.3) 79 (64.3) 6.5   1.24(0.52,2.98)   30(10.2) 17(67.1) 15.4   ...  
more than 60% 73(19.6) 30 (31.7) 7.6   0.29(0.11,0.77)   178(71.1) 61 (37.9) 7.5 0.63 ...  
p for trend§     0.03   0.02       
Episode of cough in the 15 days prior to the survey             
No 114 (37.6) 75 (68.0) 6.8   Reference   111 (45.5) 43 (40.8) 7,4   ...  
Yes 193 (62.4) 105 (53.1) 5.4 0.07 0.43(0.20,0,97) 0.04 125(54.5) 52 (46.8) 7,6 0.49 ...  
Stunting             
No 183 (58.3) 103 (55.9) 5.6   ...   170(71.5) 61 (38.9) 6.9   Reference  
Yes 118 (41.7) 73 (62.3) 6.6 0.40 ...   57(28.5) 32 (53.6) 8.0 0.06 3.07(1.40,6.73) 0.005
Colostrum             
No 60(19.9) 38 (67.7) 7.3   ...   45(19.0) 26 (65.8) 8.3   Reference  
Yes 235 (80.1) 135 (56.4) 5.7 0.18 ...   170(81.0) 62 (39.8) 7.0 0.004 0.24(0.08,0.71) 0.01
Mother took antimalaric drugs during pregnancy             
No 126 (41.5) 74 (61.4) 4.6   ...   84 (38.5) 40(53.1) 9.2   Reference  
Yes 184 (58.5) 107 (56.9) 6.2 0.39 ...   157(61.5) 57 (37.5) 5.5 0.06 0.25 (0.098, 0.62) 0.003
Someone in the house sleeps with bednet             
No 189 (59.5) 107 (59.7) 5.5   ...   87 (35.2) 33 (36.7) 6.4   Reference  
Yes 127 (40.5) 74 (57.8) 5.5 0.74 ...   153(64.8) 64 (47.7) 7.1 0.14 3.05(1.52,6.14) 0.002
Socio-economic level             
low 101 (39.1) 59 (62.4) 6.5   ...   81 (38.5) 38 (53.8) 8.3   Reference  
medium 109 (33.6) 63 (57.3) 6.5   ...   79(31.7) 39(51.8) 8.1   0.97(0.29,3.25)  
high 100 (27.3) 59 (55.4) 7.8   ...   82 (29.8) 20(21.6) 5.4 0.04 0.15(0.05,0.50)  
p for trend§     0.91         0.0002
Overall¶ 308 (100)       240(100)      
  1. *Plasmodium infection measured by means of thick and thin film.
  2. † Frequencies are weighted and calculated according to the complex design taking into account clustering and stratification.
  3. ‡ Odds ratios obtained by multivariate logistic regresssion models for rural and urban strata. Models are adjusted for survey and clustering effects and include all
  4. variables for which adjusted estimates are presented.
  5. § p value for the predictor when introduced into the model as a continuous variable representing the ordinal categories, adjusted for all other covariates in the multivariate model
  6. ¶ Totals may be less than 310 or 240 respectively, because of missing data.
  7. ... Not included on the multivariate model