Parsimony-based haplotype networks of 112 haplotypes from 1058 bp of the COI gene sequenced from 220 specimens of An. albimanus. The color of the circles and numbers in parentheses depict the origin and frequency of each haplotype, respectively. Each black bar represents one mutational step; the dashed line and m.h represent missing haplotypes. Unique haplotypes from Caribbean populations are represented in the network as Los Achiotes (A), Santa Rosa de Lima (SR), Moñitos (M) and Turbo (Y and C), and haplotypes from Pacific populations as Nuquí (N), Pizarro (P), Buenaventura (B) and Tumaco (T).