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Table 3 Risk factors for adverse events due to diarrhoea or vomiting within 28 days following therapy

From: Safety and tolerability of artemether-lumefantrine versus dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for malaria in young HIV-infected and uninfected children

Risk category Risk group Diarrhoea Vomiting
   AL DP AL DP
   HR (95% CI) p-value HR (95% CI) p-value HR (95% CI) p-value HR (95% CI) p-value
Age >15-22 months 1.0 (reference) - 1.0 (reference) - 1.0 (reference) - 1.0 (reference) -
  >12-15 months 1.17 (0.56-2.46) 0.67 3.34 (1.39-8.02) 0.007 0.75 (0.10-5.58) 0.78 2.66 (0.80-8.85) 0.11
  >10-12 months 2.04 (1.09-3.85) 0.03 4.03 (1.90-8.53) < 0.001 0.32 (0.04-2.86) 0.31 2.61 (0.66-10.3) 0.17
  4-10 months 2.11 (1.09-4.08) 0.03 3.22 (1.33-7.81) 0.01 1.14 (0.30-4.27) 0.84 1.08 (0.20-5.90) 0.93
Duration since last treatment > 63 days or no prior treatment 1.0 (reference) - 1.0 (reference) - 1.0 (reference) - 1.0 (reference) -
  28-63 days 0.54 (0.34-0.86) 0.009 0.85 (0.47-1.52) 0.57 0.77 (0.24-2.42) 0.65 0.78 (0.30-2.02) 0.60
  17-28 days 0.68 (0.36-1.29) 0.24 1.33 (0.47-3.73) 0.59 0.71 (0.11-4.73) 0.72 6.63 (2.33-18.9) < 0.001
HIV status, HIV-uninfected not taking TS 1.0 (reference) - 1.0 (reference) - 1.0 (reference) - 1.0 (reference) -
TS use, HIV-uninfected taking TS 0.78 (0.47-1.28) 0.32 1.26 (0.76-2.11) 0.37 1.04 (0.27-4.02) 0.95 1.30 (0.47-3.55) 0.62
ARV use* HIV-infected taking TS and ARVs 0.33 (0.12-0.90) 0.03 0.46 (0.11-2.03) 0.31 1.77 (0.20-15.7) 0.61 1.85 (0.31-10.9) 0.50
  1. HR = hazard ratio, generated using multivariate Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for repeated measures in the same patient
  2. * HIV-infected patients not taking ARVs not included in the analysis due to small numbers (n = 16)
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