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Table 3 Personal protection and vector control among malaria case-patients and matched controls, Naxalbari, Darjeeling, West Bengal, India, 2005

From: A malaria outbreak in Naxalbari, Darjeeling district, West Bengal, India, 2005: weaknesses in disease control, important risk factors

Characteristics Cases (n = 534) Controls (n = 534) Matched odds ratio
# % # % Estimate 95% confidence interval
Sleeping outdoors every night 190 36 150 32 3.8a 2.2 - 6.5
Using coils or repellent creams daily 120 23 152 29 0.1b 0.06 - 0.3
Using bet nets every night c 98 18 133 25 0.3d 0.1 - 0.5
Underwent indoor residual spray (DDT) 213 40 220 41 0.9 0.7 - 1.2
  1. a Fraction attributable to sleeping outdoors: 26%
  2. b Fraction attributable to the failure to use repellents: 69%
  3. c No insecticide impregnation in place at the time of the outbreak
  4. d Fraction attributable to the failure to sleep under a bed net: 57%