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Table 3 Symptoms children presented with and reasons caretakers gave for having used government or private providers

From: Utilization of public or private health care providers by febrile children after user fee removal in Uganda

Variable Government Drug shops & private clinics Crude OR (95% CI) p-value Adjusted OR (95% CI) p-value
Presenting symptom * n = 151 (%) n = 286 (%)     
Cough 83 (55.0) 138 (48.3) 1.31 (0.88 – 1.95) 0.182 N/A  
Running nose 105 (69.5) 205 (71.7) 0.90 (0.59 – 1.39) 0.640 N/A  
Difficulty in breathing 30 (19.9) 62 (21.7) 0.90 (0.55 – 1.46) 0.660 N/A  
Fast breathing 18 (11.9) 52 (18.2) 0.61 (0.34 – 1.09) 0.090 0.67 (0.32 – 1.40) 0.284
Convulsions 9 (6.0) 22 (7.7) 0.76 (0.34 – 1.70) 0.503 N/A  
Pallor 4 (2.7) 11 (3.9) 0.68 (0.21 – 2.18) 0.514 N/A  
Diarrhoea 49 (32.5) 67 (23.4) 1.57 (1.01 – 2.44) 0.042 † 0.98 (0.54 – 1.79) 0.947
Vomiting 44 (29.1) 56 (19.6) 1.69 (1.07 – 2.67) 0.024 † 2.07 (1.10 – 3.89) 0.024 ‡
Perception of provider* n = 151 (%) n = 286 (%)     
Conduct of health provider 51 (33.8) 53 (18.6) 2.23 (1.41 – 3.53) <0.001 † 1.70 (0.94 – 3.08) 0.077
Qualification of health provider 90 (56.6) 27 (9.5) 14.10 (7.67 – 25.92) <0.001 † 10.32 (5.84 – 18.26) <0.001 ‡
Experience of health provider 65 (43.3) 50 (17.5) 3.59 (2.26 – 5.71) <0.001 † 1.93 (1.07 – 3.48) 0.030 ‡
Provider is polite 6 (4.0) 23 (8.1) 0.47 (0.19 – 1.19) 0.103 N/A  
Good equipment 44 (29.1) 22 (7.7) 4.92 (2.74 – 8.81) <0.001 † 1.88 (0.88 – 4.02) 0.103
Good infrastructure 20 (13.3) 14 (4.9) 2.96 (1.43 – 6.09) 0.002 † 1.31 (0.50 – 3.43) 0.576
Treatment being cheap 58 (38.4) 88 (30.9) 1.40 (0.92 – 2.11) 0.113 N/A  
Provider is nearby 68 (45.0) 205 (71.9) 0.32 (0.21 – 0.49) <0.001 † 0.62 (0.36 – 1.06) 0.080
Easier to get more treatment there 37 (24.5) 58 (20.4) 1.27 (0.79 – 2.03) 0.318 N/A  
To get first aid 9 (6.0) 47 (16.5) 0.32 (0.15 – 0.68) 0.002 † 0.20 (0.08 – 0.52) 0.001 ‡
  1. The reference category was the government facilities.
  2. * Multiple answers were given for the presenting symptom or perception of provider.
  3. † Significant at bivariate analysis.
  4. ‡ Significant at multivariable analysis.
  5. N/A stands for Not Applicable. It is for those variables whose p ≥ 1 and were hence not included in the multivariable analysis.