Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 4 Mean and standard error (SE) obtained for the esterase, monooxygenase and GST assay on different Vietnamese populations of An. minimus s.l., An. epiroticus and An. subpictus.

From: Absence of knockdown resistance suggests metabolic resistance in the main malaria vectors of the Mekong region

Species Study site and year n Esterase (PNPA)
(μmol/min/mg protein)
Monooxygenase
(nmol equivalent unit cyt P450/mg protein)
GST (CDNB)
(mmol/min/mg protein)
    Mean SE p-value1 Mean SE p-value1 Mean SE p-value1
An. minimus s.s. VHBA 2003 36 0.0615 0.0053   0.5877 0.0626   0.1324 0.0182  
  VHBA 2004 25 0.0484 0.0054 0.180 0.5337 0.0524 0.232 0.1409 0.0192 0.611
  VHBB 2003 40 0.0693 0.0101 ↓ 0.001 0.6036 0.0306 0.177 0.1296 0.0165 0.858
  VHBB 2004 40 0.0585 0.0063 0.066 0.6317 0.0412 0.321 0.1208 0.0128 0.383
  VTHA 2004 26 0.0565 0.0088 ↓ 0.011 0.1771 0.0210 ↓ 0.000 0.1534 0.0169 0.181
  VLSA 2004 44 0.0969 0.0070 0.000 0.1551 0.0144 ↓ 0.000 0.0970 0.0117 0.075
  VQNA 2004 29 0.1071 0.0112 0.001 0.2749 0.0206 ↓ 0.000 0.0744 0.0121 ↓ 0.047
  VQNB 2004 30 0.1081 0.0056 0.000 0.2749 0.0291 ↓ 0.000 0.0829 0.0111 0.053
  VNAB 2004 12 0.1486 0.0156 0.000 1.1702 0.1799 0.002 0.0590 0.0147 0.057
An. harrisoni VSLA 2003 27 0.0602 0.0045 0.065 0.5916 0.0433 0.726 0.0492 0.0090 ↓ 0.002
  VSLB 2003 29 0.0607 0.0033 0.084 0.6277 0.0408 0.072 0.0637 0.0116 ↓ 0.009
  VLSB 2004 26 0.0418 0.0065 ↓ 0.000 0.2865 0.0383 ↓ 0.000 0.1567 0.0293 0.174
An. epiroticus VKGA 2003 30 0.0773 0.0080 0.032 0.0916 0.0087 ↓ 0.000 0.1172 0.0124 0.282
  VHCA 04/2003 30 0.0953 0.0137 0.025 0.2257 0.0126 ↓ 0.000 0.1691 0.0272 0.604
  VHCB 2003 30 0.0898 0.0126 0.177 0.1861 0.0084 ↓ 0.000 0.1618 0.0175 0.059
  VBTA 2003 27 0.1304 0.0160 0.000 0.1532 0.0134 ↓ 0.000 0.2163 0.0307 0.111
  VBLB 2003 27 0.1082 0.0069 0.000 0.2131 0.0167 ↓ 0.000 0.1391 0.0171 0.065
  VHCA 10/2003 9 0.1956 0.0300 0.000 0.1295 0.0074 ↓ 0.000 0.1036 0.0214 0.759
  VBLA 2003 44 0.0955 0.0084 0.004 0.2015 0.0262 ↓ 0.000 0.1249 0.0162 0.528
  VBLA 2004 30 0.1008 0.0125 0.006 0.1823 0.0142 ↓ 0.000 0.1053 0.0165 0.641
  VBLB 2004 22 0.1199 0.0104 0.000 0.1670 0.0093 ↓ 0.000 0.1321 0.0260 0.361
  VBTB 2003 29 0.1247 0.0139 0.000 0.1793 0.0148 ↓ 0.000 0.1409 0.0219 0.146
  VCMA 2003 30 0.0754 0.0087 ↑ 0.020 0.0952 0.0074 ↓ 0.000 0.0906 0.0113 ↓ 0.036
  VCMB 2003 30 0.1344 0.0132 0.000 0.1454 0.0140 ↓ 0.000 0.0970 0.0134 0.075
  VCMC 2003 26 0.2494 0.0336 0.000 0.2981 0.0181 ↓ 0.000 0.1492 0.0138 0.117
  VCMD 2003 13 0.1703 0.0329 0.001 0.2793 0.0221 ↓ 0.001 0.1700 0.0265 0.220
  VKGS 2003 30 0.0867 0.0088 0.036 0.0936 0.0155 ↓ 0.000 0.1308 0.0192 0.967
  VLAA 2003 20 0.0919 0.0114 0.029 0.1419 0.0062 ↓ 0.000 0.1534 0.0147 0.063
  VLAB 2003 30 0.0714 0.0084 ↑ 0.008 0.0839 0.0117 ↓ 0.000 0.1105 0.0087 ↓ 0.014
  VSTA 2003 30 0.0940 0.0076 0.000 0.2040 0.0094 ↓ 0.000 0.1292 0.0103 0.075
  VTGA 2003 37 0.0822 0.0082 0.015 0.1135 0.0131 ↓ 0.000 0.0732 0.0100 ↓ 0.029
An. subpictus VLAA 2003 30 0.0715 0.0080 0.130 0.2782 0.0353 ↓ 0.000 0.2938 0.0305 0.001
  VKGB 2003 17 0.1300 0.0213 0.003 0.1324 0.0123 ↓ 0.000 0.3375 0.0248 0.000
  1. ↑ Mean rank of population is increased compared to the An. minimus s.s. population of VHBA.
  2. ↓ Mean rank of population is decreased compared to the An. minimus s.s. population of VHBA.
  3. 1 P values (Two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z) indicating a significant increased level of esterase activity, GST activity or an elevated level of monooxygenase compared to the An. minimus s.s. population of VHBA are given in bold
  4. The esterase activity was measured with para-nitrophenyl acetate (PNPA), whereas the GST activity was measured with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) as substrate.