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Table 5 Overview of the possible metabolic resistance mechanisms in relation to the mortality categories in the WHO bioassay as published in [5].

From: Absence of knockdown resistance suggests metabolic resistance in the main malaria vectors of the Mekong region

Species Study site and year BIOASSAYS (mortality categories)1 BIOCHEMICAL ASSAYS2
   DDT 4% permethrin 0.75% Alpha-cypermethrin 0.082% Lambda-cyhalothrin 0.05% esterases Mono-oxygenases GST
An. minimus s.s. VHBA, 2003 S S S S - - -
  VHBA, 2004 S S S S NO NO NO
  VHBB, 2003 S S S S NO NO NO
  VHBB, 2004 S S S S NO NO NO
  VTHA, 2004 S S S PR NO NO NO
  VLSA, 2004 S PR PR PR YES NO NO
  VQNA, 2004 S PR PR R YES NO NO
  VQNB, 2004 S PR R R YES NO NO
  VNAB, 2004 nd Nd PR nd YES YES NO
An. harrisoni VSLA, 2003 PR S nd S NO NO NO
  VSLB, 2003 S S nd nd NO NO NO
  VLSB, 2004 nd R PR PR NO NO NO
An. epiroticus VKGA, 2003 S PR R R YES NO NO
  VHCA, 04/2003 S PR R R YES NO NO
  VHCB, 2003 PR PR R R NO NO NO
  VBTA, 2003 PR PR PR PR YES NO NO
  VBLB, 2003 nd PR nd R YES NO NO
  VHCA, 10/2003 PR R R R YES NO NO
  VBLA, 2003 S R PR PR YES NO NO
  VBLA, 2004 S R S R YES NO NO
  VBLB, 2004 S R R R YES NO NO
  VBTB, 2003 S R PR R YES NO NO
  VCMA, 2003 S R R PR YES NO NO
  VCMB, 2003 S R R R YES NO NO
  VCMC, 2003 S R R R YES NO NO
  VCMD, 2003 S R R R YES NO NO
  VKGS, 2003 S R R R YES NO NO
  VLAA, 2003 S R R R YES NO NO
  VLAB, 2003 S R PR R YES NO NO
  VSTA, 2003 S R PR R YES NO NO
  VTGA, 2003 PR R nd Nd YES NO NO
An. subpictus VLAA, 2003 PR PR PR PR NO NO YES
  VKGB, 2003 PR R PR R YES NO YES
  1. 1Mortality categories
  2. S Susceptible (mortality > 98%)
  3. PR Possibility of resistance (mortality between 80–97%)
  4. R Resistant (mortality < 80%)
  5. Nd Not done
  6. 2YES: mean rank of population is significantly higher than mean rank of VHBA An. minimus s.s. population.
  7. NO: mean rank of population is not significant higher than mean rank of VHBA An. minimus s.s. population