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Table 3 Performance of light microscopy and Optimal-IT in the discrimination of Plasmodium species.

From: Towards a precise test for malaria diagnosis in the Brazilian Amazon: comparison among field microscopy, a rapid diagnostic test, nested PCR, and a computational expert system based on artificial neural networks

Plasmodium sp. Diagnostic test Sensitivity Specificity PPV NPV
   (95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI)
P. vivax Microscopy 80% 100% 100% 88.8%
   (71.7-86.7) (98.1-100) (96.2-100) (83.8-92.7)
  Optimal-IT 81.7% 100% 100% 89.7%
   (73.6-88.1) (98.1-100) (96.3-100) (84.8-93.4)
P. falciparum Microscopy 86.4% 100% 100% 96.5%
   (75.7-93.6) (98.5-100) (93.7-100) (93.4-98.4)
  Optimal-IT 84.8% 100% 100% 96.1%
   (73.9-92.5) (98.5-100) (93.6-100) (92.9-98.1)
  1. The overall performance of Optimal-IT and light microscopy were compared to the nested PCR as the gold standard. No significant statistical difference was found between the tests for the diagnosis of both P. vivax and P. falciparum. CI, confidence interval; PPV, positive predictive value; NPV, negative predictive value.