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Table 5 Overall performance of microscopy and Optimal-IT in the discrimination of symptomatic malaria cases presenting with low parasitaemia.

From: Towards a precise test for malaria diagnosis in the Brazilian Amazon: comparison among field microscopy, a rapid diagnostic test, nested PCR, and a computational expert system based on artificial neural networks

Diagnostic method Plasmodium species Sensitivity Specificity PPV NPV
Optimal-IT® Plasmodium non falciparum 76%* 100% 100% 75%
  P. falciparum 75%† 100% 100% 97%
  Plasmodium sp 76%* 100% 100% 88%
Microscopy P. vivax 58% 100% 100% 88%†
  P. falciparum 63% 100% 100% 96%
  P. vivax + P. falciparum 59% 100% 100% 81%
  1. Values represent data from patients with <500 parasites/μL of blood determined by light microscopy. Nested PCR was considered the gold standard. PPV, positive predictive value; NPV, negative predictive value. The results for the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV obtained for each Plasmodium species were compared between the diagnostic methods using Fisher's exact test. *p < 0.01; †p < 0.05.