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Figure 1 | Malaria Journal

Figure 1

From: Severe Plasmodium vivax malaria exhibits marked inflammatory imbalance

Figure 1

The Hepatic-Inflammatory Parasitic score. In a primary investigation, 580 individuals from Buritis, Rondonia, Brazil were evaluated to standardize the Hepatic-Inflammatory Parasitic (HIP) score. This sample included non-infected individuals (n = 183) and those infected with Plasmodium presenting malaria-related symptoms (n = 195) or asymptomatic infection (n = 202). The threshold plasma values of (A) aspartate aminotransferase (AST), (B) alanino amino-transaminase (ALT), (C) total bilirubin, (D) fibrinogen, (E) C reactive protein (CRP) and (F) parasitaemia were established in order to categorize the individuals according to the HIP score. Once the HIP score was created, it was applied in another sample from the same endemic area composed by 219 individuals: non-infected (n = 90), asymptomatic (n = 60), mild (n = 50) and severe vivax infection (n = 19). Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated, together with the cut-off value, which presents the higher likelihood ratio, and P values are plotted. The HIP score is described in Methods.

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