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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the participants.

From: Severe Plasmodium vivax malaria exhibits marked inflammatory imbalance

  Plasmodium vivax infection
Variables Non-infected N = 90 Asymptomatic N = 60 Mild N = 50 Severe N = 19
Male - no. (%) 39 (43.3) 30 (50.0) 22 (44.0) 10 (52.6)
Age - year *     
   Median 38.0 42.0 33.0 22.0
   Interquartile interval 25.0 - 51.0 32.0 - 48.2 26.7 - 48.0 16.0 - 35.0
Previous malaria episodes *     
   Median 14.0 16.0 8.0 3.5
   Interquartile interval 10.0 - 18.0 13.0 - 20.0 1.0 - 12 2.0 - 7.5
Years resident in the area *     
   Median 11.4 12.5 7.4 3.0
   Interquartile interval 3.2 - 12.8 4.2 - 14.6 0.5 - 9.2 0.5 - 5.4
Parasitaemia (parasites/uL) *     
   Median 0 73 § 4,798 49,358
   Interquartile interval 0 54.0 - 85.0 2,934 - 7,483 32,796 - 54,244
Haemoglobin (g/dL) *     
   Median 13.2 11.5 8.9 6.4
   Interquartile interval 9.2 - 14.5 9.5 - 14.2 7.3 - 12.6 5.8 - 7.4
CRP (ng/mL)*     
   Median 5.65 6.6 6.5 15.3
   Interquartile interval 3.7 - 9.47 4.12 - 9.35 4.9 - 8.7 11.9 - 20.65
Serum creatinine (mg/dL)*     
   Median 0.85 0.9 1.1 1.7
   Interquartile interval 0.7 - 1.2 0.7 - 1.2 0.7 - 1.3 1.42 - 2.45
AST (U/L)*     
   Median 41.5 50.2 95.2 385.5
   Interquartile interval 32.5 - 68.3 38.4 - 73.5 42.6 - 251.7 277.3 - 487.4
   UNL 1.04 1.25 2.38 9.64
ALT (U/L)*     
   Median 42.35 40 58.3 238.4
   Interquartile interval 37.28 - 53.58 23.25 - 65.78 43.6 - 87.5 105.5 - 364.6
   UNL 1.06 1 1.46 4.96
Total bilirubin (mg/dL)*     
   Median 0.35 0.4 0.8 2.1
   Interquartile interval 0.3 - 0.4 0.3 - 0.62 0.7 - 2.05 1.15 - 3.1
Direct bilirubin (mg/dL)     
   Median 0 0.11 0.3 1.1
   Interquartile interval 0 - 0 0.01 - 0.4 0 - 1.63 0 - 2.2
Indirect bilirubin (mg/dL)     
   Median 0.3 0.28 0.5 1.1
   Interquartile interval 0.28 - 0.37 0.2 - 0.3 0.45 - 0.72 0.6 - 1.3
  1. CRP: C reactive protein; AST: aspartate aminotransferase; ALT: alanine amino-transferase; UNL: Upper normal levels. Data represent the number of times the median of AST or ALT is higher than the standardized normal laboratory level (40 U/L). Ordinal variables were compared using the Kruskal Wallis test with Dunn's multiple comparisons. The prevalence of male gender was compared between the groups using chi-square test. §Six out of sixty individuals with asymptomatic P. vivax infection were negative for malaria infection by light microscopy, but were positive for Plasmodium vivax infection by nested PCR. *Differences were significant between groups (P < 0.05).