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Table 2 Characterization of the patients with severe vivax malaria.

From: Severe Plasmodium vivax malaria exhibits marked inflammatory imbalance

    Clinical presentation at admission P. vivax diagnosis  
Patient No. Gender Age (y) Major manifestation Secondary manifestation Nested PCR Microscopy Outcome
1 M 15 Oliguria Hypotension, splenomegaly + + Recovered
2 M 17 Respiratory failure Hypotension + + Recovered
3 F 9 Respiratory failure Hypotension + + Died
4 M 21 Severe anaemia Hypotension, splenomegaly + + Recovered
5 M 22 Severe anaemia Hypotension + + Recovered
6 M 32 Anuric renal failure Hypotension, splenomegaly + + Died
7 F 41 Respiratory failure Hypotension, Jaundice + + Died
8 F 15 Severe anaemia Splenomegaly + + Recovered
9 M 15 Anuric renal failure Hypotension, Jaundice + + Died
10 M 17 Severe anaemia Splenomegaly + + Recovered
11 F 13 Jaundice Splenomegaly + + Recovered
12 F 26 Jaundice Hypotension + + Recovered
13 M 32 Respiratory failure Hypotension + + Recovered
14 F 27 Seizure Jaundice + + Recovered
15 M 42 Oliguria Hypotension + + Recovered
16 F 38 Jaundice Hypotension + + Recovered
17 F 54 Respiratory failure Hypotension + + Died
18 M 24 Severe anaemia Hypotension + + Recovered
19 M 22 Respiratory failure Jaundice + + Died
  1. Data regarding major and secondary manifestations were obtained from medical records and/or through the clinical exam at the hospital admission. Oliguria was defined as estimated urinary output less than 400 mL/24 h and anuric renal failure as urinary output below 100 mL/24 h. Severe anaemia was defined as haemoglobin levels below 7 g/dL and jaundice by clinical exam and bilirubin levels above 2.0. Hypotension was defined as the presence of related symptoms with blood pressure below 100 × 40 mmHg. Respiratory failure was defined as tachypnea, shortness of breath, mental confusion clinical signs of hypoxaemia (central and/or peripheral cyanosis).