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Table 1 Protective Efficacy (%) of five human-derived semiochemicals and DEET tested at different concentrations in arm-in-cage experiments

From: Arm-in-cage testing of natural human-derived mosquito repellents

Conc. (%) DEET Octanal Mean % PE (+S.E.) 6MHO GA
Nonanal Decanal
Anopheles gambiae      
0.0001 -- -17.4 (± 3.0)c* -21.4 (± 2.9)e* -13.4 (± 4.3)e* 0.9 (± 3.9)c --
0.001 6.2 (± 1.7)d -9.9 (± 1.5)c -12.7 (± 2.2)de 5.9 (± 4.5)de 1.6 (± 11.2)c 7.3 (± 9.5)b
0.01 20.7 (± 6.4)c* 5.1 (± 5.2)b -6.3 (± 2.8)d 9 (± 6)d 19.2 (± 5.5)bc* 11.2 (± 12.9)b
0.1 83.8 (± 3.9)b* 11.3 (± 7.2)b 5.7 (± 4.0)c 30.1 (± 7.7)c* 34.1 (± 6.6)b* 30.1 (± 11)b*
1 100 (± 0)a* 31.7 (± 5.6)a* 37.4 (± 5.9)b* 55.9 (± 6)b* 35.7 (± 8.7)b* 77 (± 5.9)a*
10 100 (± 0)a* 44.2 (± 5.4)a* 73.8 (± 4.7)a* 97.2 (± 1.4)a* 74.75 (± 6.1)a* 100 (± 0)a*
Culex quinquefasciatus      
0.0001 -- -47.3(± 5.1)d* -45.9 (± 6.2)e* -24.1 (± 8)d* 8 (± 1.8)d 4.8 (± 2.4)d
0.001 7.6 (± 1.8)c -38.2 (± 4.1)d* -27.7 (± 4.9)d* -23.5 (± 4.5)d* 12.7 (± 2.1)d* 10 (± 1.6)d*
0.01 12 (± 1.7)c* -22.8 (± 5.5)c* -16 (± 3.5)cd* 5.7 (± 2.5)c 21.8 (± 4.9)c* 23.7 (± 4.5)c*
0.1 76.9 (± 5.4)b* -13.5 (± 5.8)b* -9.6 (± 3)c 37.3 (± 10)b* 30.1 (± 4.1)c* 33.2 (± 4.5)c*
1 98.2 (± 1.1)a* -1.6 (± 3.2)a 23.0 (± 8.2)b* 91.3 (± 2.7)a* 49.7 (± 2.9)b* 84.1 (± 4.2)b*
10 100 (± 0)a* 9.8 (± 1.9)a 78.3 (± 2.5)a* 100 (± 0)a* 100 (± 0)a* 100 (± 0)a*
Aedes aegypti      
0.001 88.7 (± 1.9)b* -11.9 (± 4.6)c -21.4 (± 5.9)c -18.8 (± 5.5)d -27.4 (± 6.3)d 11.7 (± 4.5)d
0.01 100 (± 0)a* -10.4 (± 4.3)c 45.5 (± 7.04)b -9.4 (± 4.1)d -18.9 (± 5.5)d 32.8 (± 6.6)c
0.1 100 (± 0)a* 24.4 (± 6.1)b* 53.6 (± 7.1)b 18.9 (± 5.5)c 12.3 (± 4.6)c 41.1 (± 6.9)bc
1 100 (± 0)a* 31.9 (± 6.6)b* 68.8 (± 6.6)b 53 (± 7.1)b 39.6 (± 6.9)b 46.7 (± 7.05)b
10 100 (± 0)a* 53.3 (± 7.1)a* 89.3 (± 4.37)a 90 (± 4.3)a 71.7 (± 6.4)a 73.3 (± 6.25)a
  1. 6MHO 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one
  2. GA geranylacetone
  3. Means followed by different letters are significantly different from each other (P < 0.05)
  4. P.E. = protective efficacy (% control mean - % test mean/% control mean)
  5. *Significantly different from the control (untreated arm) (P < 0.05)