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Table 2 Protective Efficacy (%) of three mixtures of human-derived semiochemicals at different concentrations in arm-in-cage experiments

From: Arm-in-cage testing of natural human-derived mosquito repellents

Mean % P.E. (±S.E.)
Concentration (%) Mixture 1 Mixture 2 Mixture 3 Mixture 4
Anopheles gambiae     
0.0001 -- -- 9.4 (± 2.3)d --
0.001 9.2 (± 1.8)e -3.5 (± 6.4)d 24.4 (± 5.1)c* --
0.01 16.9 (± 3.5)d* 16.5 (± 5.1)c* 79.4 (± 3.7)b* --
0.1 44.6 (± 3.5)c* 26.9 (± 3.7)c* 87.1 (± 3.1)b* --
1 94.1 (± 1.1)b* 59.5 (± 3.1)b* 100 (± 0)a* --
10 100 (± 0)a* 100 (± 0)a* 100 (± 0)a* --
Culex quinquefasciatus     
0.001 9.6 (± 3.5)d -- 11.3 (± 1.9)d* --
0.01 20.82 (± 4.9)cd* -- 20.8 (± 2.3)d* --
0.1 33.46 (± 3.8)c* -- 55.6 (± 5.8)c* --
1 84.1 (± 7)b* -- 77 (± 4.5)b* --
10 100 (± 0)a* -- 100 (± 0)a* --
Aedes aegypti     
0.001 -4.5 (± 8.3)d 20 (± 8.3)b* 17.7 (± 8.3)c* 10.6 (± 8.3)c*
0.01 6.4 (± 4.9)c 25 (± 8.7)b* 8.8 (± 5.7)c 16.3 (± 7.4)c*
0.1 19 (± 7.9)b* 25.8 (± 8.8)b* 26.5 (± 8.8)c* 12.7 (± 6.7)c*
1 30 (± 9.2)a* 40.8 (± 9.8)a* 48.7 (± 9.9)b* 29.1 (± 9.1)b*
10 37.3 (± 9.7)a* 44.1 (± 9.9)a* 77.9 (± 8.3)a* 53.6 (± 9.9)a*
  1. Mixture 1 = 1:1:1:1:1 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one:octanal:nonanal:decanal:geranylacetone
  2. Mixture 2 = 1:3:1:0.5:0.5 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one:octanal:nonanal:decanal:geranylacetone
  3. Mixture 3 = 1:1 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one:geranylacetone
  4. Mixture 4 = 1:1:1 octanal: nonanal: decanal
  5. Means followed by different letters are significantly different from each other (P < 0.05)
  6. P.E. = protective efficacy (% control mean - % test mean/% control mean)
  7. *Significantly different from the control (untreated arm) (P < 0.05)