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Table 3 Protective Efficacy (%) of two formulated mixtures of human-derived semiochemicals and DEET (10% concentration) in arm-in-cage experiments

From: Arm-in-cage testing of natural human-derived mosquito repellents

Time post application (hrs) DEET Mixture 1 Mixture 3
Anopheles gambiae    
0 100 (± 0)a* 100 (± 0)a* 100 (± 0)a*
2 100 (± 0)a* 89.4(± 3.7)a* 98.5 (± 1.51)a*
4 100 (± 0)a* 54.9 (± 4.5)b* 64.3 (± 6.15)b*
6 100 (± 0)a* 32.1 (± 5.6)c* 38.8 (± 4.31)c*
8 94.4 (± 1)b* 12.5 (± 2.1)d 30.8 (± 6.96)c*
Culex quinquefasciatus    
0 100 (± 0)a* 100 (± 0)a* 100 (± 0)a*
2 100 (± 0)a* 89 (± 4.2)a* 98.6 (± 1.43)a*
4 100 (± 0)a* 56.2 (± 4.4)b* 80 (± 1.7)b*
6 100 (± 0)a* 28.5 (± 5.2)c* 60.9 (± 3.1)c*
8 93.3 (± 4.08)b* 19.8 (± 3.2)c* 45.8 (± 4.1)d*
Aedes aegypti    
0 100 (± 0)a* 46.5 (± 9.9)a* 60 (± 9.8)a*
1 100 (± 0)a* 46.1 (± 9.9)a* 43.6 (± 9.9)ab*
2 100 (± 0)a* 13.8 (± 6.9)b* 30.9 (± 9.2)bc*
3 100 (± 0)a* -8.6 (± 5.6)b 21.1 (± 5.6)cd*
4 100 (± 0)a* 17.2 (± 7.6)bc 11.3 (± 6.3)d
5 100 (± 0)a* 10.3 (± 6.09)bc 7.04 (± 5.1)d
6 100 (± 0)a* -15.5 (± 7.24)c -16.9 (± 7.2)e
7 97 (± 1.95)b* 1.7 (± 2.6)c -2.8 (± 2.6)e
8 96.1 (± 1.94)b* -8.6 (± 5.6)c -2.9 (± 3.3)e
  1. Mixture 1 = 1:1:1:1:1 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one:octanal:nonanal:decanal:geranylacetone
  2. Mixture 3 = 1:1 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one:geranylacetone
  3. Means followed by different letters are significantly different from each other (P < 0.05)
  4. P.E. = protective efficacy (% formulation control mean - % test mean/% formulation control mean)
  5. *Significantly different from the control (formulation-treated arm) (P < 0.05)