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Table 1 Mutant genotypes associated with high levels of anti-folate resistance

From: Anti-folate drug resistance in Africa: meta-analysis of reported dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) mutant genotype frequencies in African Plasmodium falciparum parasite populations

dhfr genotypes Location Reference
N51I/C59R/S108N Asia, Africa Reviewed in [17]
N51I/C59R/S108N/I164L Asia, Africa Reviewed in [17]; [88]
N51I/S108N/I164L South America, Africa [96]; [97]; [98]; [88]
C50R/N51I/S108N South America [96]
dhps genotypes Location Reference
A437G/K540E Africa, Asia, Indonesia Reviewed in [17]; [99]; [100]
S436A/A437G Africa [101]; [79]
A437G/A581G South America [102]
A437G/K540E/A581G Asia, South America [96]; [103]; [97]
S436A/A437G/K540E/A581G; S436A/A437G/K540E Asia [104]; [105]