Effect of substrate. Cumulative daily proportional survival of female An. gambiae s.s. exposed for 3 hrs to proofing papers (red) or cardboard papers (blue) manually coated with 3 × 1011 viable spores/m2 Shellsol-formulated M. anisopliae (M.a.) or B.bassiana (B.b.). Controls were proofing papers coated with Shellsol only (black). Data represent the average ± SE survival of three replicates of 50 females.