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Table 1 Median minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of anti-malarials against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

From: Anti-bacterial activity of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy: comparative in vitro study of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, mefloquine, and azithromycin

Microorganisms Median Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (μg/ml)
  Sulphadoxine/Pyrimethamine Mefloquine Azithromycin
S. aureus (n = 5) 16 16 0.5
S. agalactiae (n = 4) 24 16 0.06
S. pneumoniae (n = 5) 4 0.06 0.01
E. faecalis (n = 5) 12 16 4
N. gonorrhoeae (n = 10) 256 8 0.01
E. coli (n = 5) 128 128 4
  1. Thresholds for drug resistance:
  2. Mefloquine: sensitive: ≤ 0.265 μg/ml
  3. Sulphadoxine/Pyrimethamine (threshold based on fractional pyrimethamine concentration in 1:20 combination): sensitive, intermediate, resistant
  4. S. aureus and E. coli: ≤ 2 μg/ml; > 2 - < 4 μg/ml; ≥ 4 μg/ml,
  5. S. pneumonia: ≤ 0.5 μg/ml; > 0.5 - < 4 μg/ml; ≥ 4 μg/ml,
  6. S. agalactiae: ≤ 1 μg/ml; > 1 - ≤ 2 μg/ml; > 2 μg/ml,
  7. E. faecalis: ˂ 0.03 μg/ml; ≥ 0.03 - ≤ 1 μg/ml; > 1 μg/ml.
  8. Azithromycin: sensitive, intermediate, resistant
  9. S. aureus; E. coli and E. faecalis ≤ 2 μg/ml, > 2 - < 8 μg/ml, ≥ 8 μg/ml;
  10. S. pneumonia and S. agalactiae ≤ 0.5 μg/ml, > 0.5 - < 2 μg/ml, ≥ 2 μg/ml;
  11. N. gonorrhoeae ≤ 0.25 μg/ml; > 0.25 μg/ml - ≤ 0.5 μg/ml; > 0.5 μg/ml;