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Table 2 Diagnostic performance of microscopy and nested PCR assays using DNA templates from saliva and urine samples.

From: Comparative detection of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum DNA in saliva and urine samples from symptomatic malaria patients in a low endemic area

Method/Specimen Category % Sensitivity % Specificity Accuracy Kappa
Microscopy P. falciparum 78.3 100 87.5 0.75
  P. vivax 79.4 100 89.2 0.79
Nested PCR      
   Saliva (in ethanol) P. falciparum 56.5 100 75.0 0.53
  P. vivax 69.8 100 84.2 0.69
   Saliva (on ice) P. falciparum 37.7 100 64.2 0.34
  P. vivax 31.8 100 64.2 0.31
   Saliva (all) P. falciparum 65.2 100 80.0 0.61
  P. vivax 76.2 100 87.5 0.75
   Urine (in ethanol) P. falciparum 29.0 100 59.2 0.26
  P. vivax 15.9 100 55.8 0.15
   Urine (on ice) P. falciparum 14.5 100 50.8 0.13
  P. vivax 12.7 100 54.2 0.12
   Urine (all) P. falciparum 36.2 100 63.3 0.33
  P. vivax 27.0 100 61.7 0.26
  1. Note. Nested PCR results from blood samples are used as the reference standard.