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Table 2 Associations between Plasmodium falciparum genetic mutations and IC 50 values for chloroquine (CQ), piperaquine (PQ), naphthoquine (NQ), pyronaridine (PY), lumefantrine (LM), dihydroartemisinin (DHA), artesunate (AS) artemether (AM)

From: Temporal changes in Plasmodium falciparum anti-malarial drug sensitivity in vitro and resistance-associated genetic mutations in isolates from Papua New Guinea

pfcrt Wild-type (CVMNK) Mixed Mutant
CQ 12 (n = 1) 30 (n = 1) 96 (79–117) (n = 39)
NQ 5.9 (n = 1) 0.6 (n = 1) 4.3 (3.9-5.9) (n = 37)
PQ 13.0 (n = 1) 11.4 (n = 1) 21.3 (16.8-27.0) (n = 39)
PY 32.5 (n = 1) 2.2 (n = 1) 7.4 (5.5-9.8) (n = 36)
LM 17.8 (n = 1) 2.0 (n = 1) 1.5 (1.0-2.0) (n = 34)
DHA 6.6 (n = 1) 3.8 (n = 1) 5.0 (3.0-6.4) (n = 40)
AS 6.6 (n = 1)) 2.1 (n = 1) 5.4 (3.7-8.0) (n = 38)
AM 6.4 (n = 1) 3.3 (n = 1) 6.3 (5.0-7.8) (n = 39)
dhps Wild-type (SAKAA) Mixed Mutant
CQ 84 (59–118) (n = 17) 192 (39–944) (n = 3) 72 (41–124) (n = 8)
NQ 4.6 (2.4-8.8) (n = 16) 7.2 (3.1-16.4) (n = 3) 3.4 (1.7-6.8) (n = 8)
PQ 18.6 (12.4-27.9) (n = 17) 31.9 (19.7-51.7) (n = 3) 17.8 (9.2-34.2) (n = 8)
PY 8.0 (4.7-13.6) (n = 17) 9.0 (3.1-26.3) (n = 3) 7.3 (2.8-18.9) (n = 7)
LM 2.1 (1.0-4.4) (n = 16) 1.5 (1.5-1.6) (n = 3) 1.3 (0.9-2.0) (n = 6)
DHA 4.5 (3.0-6.7) (n = 17) 7.6 (0.8-72.6) (n = 3) 7.0 (3.2-15.1) (n = 8)
AS 6.2 (4.2-9.2) (n = 17) 8.0 (5.6-11.5) (n = 3) 6.9 (2.8-16.9) (n = 8)
AM 6.2 (4.2-9.2) (n = 17) 6.9 (4.7 -10.2) (n = 3) 5.7 (3.4-9.4) (n = 8)
dhfr Wild-type (NCSI) Mixed # Mutant
CQ - 161 (22–1195) (n = 3) 89 (71–112) (n = 33)
NQ - 4.7 (2.0-10.1) (n = 3) 4.1 (2.8-5.9) (n = 32)
PQ - 17.39 (2.7-113.3) (n = 3) 20.5 (15.9-26.5) (n = 34)
PY - 3.9 (0.6-27.4) (n = 3) 7.7 (5.5-10.7) (n = 32)
LM - 1.2 (0.5-2.7) (n = 3) 1.6 (1.0-2.4) (n = 30)
DHA - 8.0 (0.8-72.3) (n = 3) 4.9 (3.7-6.5) (n = 34)
AS - 7.4 (4.1-13.4) (n = 3) 5.7 (3.8-8.5) (n = 33)
AM - 7.5 (2.2-26) (n = 3) 6.2 (4.8-7.9) (n = 34)
pfmdr1 Wild-type (NYSND) Mixed Mutant
CQ - 39 (12–125) (n = 3) 96 (77–122) (n = 33)*
NQ - 1.5 (1.5-1.5) (n = 2) 4.4 (3.1-6.2) (n = 32)
PQ - 11.5 (6.6-20.1) (n = 3) 20.9 (16.2-27.1) (n = 34)
PY - 2.2 (0.0-217.1) (n = 2) 7.8 (5.7-10.9) (n = 32)
LM - 0.8 (0.2-2.8) (n = 3) 1.7 (1.1-2.5) (n = 30)
DHA - 4.7 (2.9-7.6) (n = 3) 5.1 (3.8-6.8) (n = 34)
AS - 3.8 (0.5-30.6) (n = 3) 5.8 (3.9-8.7) (n = 33)
AM - 5.9 (2.5-13.6) (n = 3) 6.4 (5.0-8.2) (n = 34)
  1. Values are given as geometric mean (95% confidence interval [where applicable]) with (number of paired observations).
  2. *P < 0.05 by Mann–Whitney U test; #‘Mixed’ corresponds to a mix of NRNI and NRTI, since no wild types were found.