Skip to main content

Table 5 Haplotypes for CQ and SP resistance markers combined at the 2001 (Asembo) and 2007 (Asembo, Gem, and Karemo) western Kenya surveys

From: Assessment of molecular markers for anti-malarial drug resistance after the introduction and scale-up of malaria control interventions in western Kenya

CQ and SP haplotype a crt 76 mdr1 86 dhfr 51 dhfr 59 dhfr 108 dhps 437 dhps 540 No. mutations Asembo 2001* N (%) (n = 111) Asembo 2007, N (%) (n = 18) Gem 2007, N (%) (n = 31) Karemo 2007, N (%) (n = 22)
Wild type K aaa N aat N aat C tgt S agc A gct K aaa      
Mutant T aca Y tat I att R cgt N aac G ggt E gaa      
  K N I C N A K 2 1 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
  T N I C N A K 3 1 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
  T Y I C N A K 4 3 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
  T Y N R N A K 4 1 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
  K Y I R N A K 4 1 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
  T N I R N A K 4 2 (2) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
  T N I C N G K 4 1 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
  T N N R N G K 4 2 (2) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
  K N I R N G K 4 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (3) 0 (0)
  K N I C N G E 4 1 (1) 1 (6) 1 (3) 0 (0)
  T Y I R N G K 5 2 (2) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
  T Y I C N G K 5 2 (2) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
  K Y I R N G K 5 1 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
  T N I R N G K 5 1 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
  K Y I C N G E 5 3 (3) 0 (0) 2 (7) 1 (5)
  T N I C N G E 5 7 (6) 0 (0) 3 (10) 1 (5)
  T N N R N G E 5 4 (4) 1 (6) 0 (0) 0 (0)
  K N I R N G E 5 3 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (5)
  T Y I R N G K 6 4 (4) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
  T Y I R N A E 6 0 (0) 1 (6) 0 (0) 0 (0)
  T Y N R N G E 6 5 (5) 1 (6) 0 (0) 0 (0)
  T Y I C N G E 6 11 (10) 2 (11) 1 (3) 3 (14)
  K Y I R N G E 6 1 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3 (14)
  T N I R N G E 6 23 (21) 5 (28) 8 (26) 4 (18)
  T Y I R N G E 7 31 (28) 7 (39) 15 (48) 9 (41)
  1. Note. CQ = chloroquine; SP = sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine; No. = number. Wild type amino acids are shown in normal font, while mutated amino acids are depicted in bold font. All samples were single infection for the microsatellite marker poly-α.
  2. aThe construction of the CQ-SP haplotype included pfcrt-76, pfmdr1 -86, dhfr-51, 59, 108, and dhps-437, 540.
  3. *Data are derived from a previous study [17].