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Table 4 Multilevel logistic model of determinants of bringing sick children to a CHW

From: Utilization of community health workers for malaria treatment: results from a three-year panel study in the districts of Kaya and Zorgho, Burkina Faso

Fixed effects (reference category) Odds ratio 95% CI
Year (2012)¶
  2011 1.77 0.74 - 4.25
  2013 2.73* 1.22 - 6.15
District (Zorgho)   
  Kaya 5.7* 1.39 – 23.47
Distance to the nearest health centre (<2.5 km)   
  2.5 km ≤ x > 5 km 7.16** 1.99 - 25.69
  ≥5 km 14.04*** 2.97 - 66.51
Home visited by a CHW during the last 3 months (no)   
  Yes 6.08* 1.51 - 24.40
Household size (less than 5)   
  5 or more 2.05 0.59 - 7.07
Land owner (no)   
  Yes 1.29 0.48 - 3.48
Possession of cattle (no)   
  Yes 1.26 0.55 - 2.87
Polygamous household (no)   
  Yes 1.17 0.53 - 2.62
Presence of danger signs (no)   
  Yes 0.71 0.32 - 1.58
Presence of cough and/or diarrhea (no)   
  Yes 1.27 0.57 - 2.84
Child sex (male)   
  Female 0.87 0.44 - 1.71
Child age (<1 year)   
  1-2 0.96 0.30 - 3.06
  2-3 0.81 0.25 - 2.64
  3-4 1.94 0.61 - 6.12
  4-5 2.19 0.63 - 7.58
Random effects (level)   
ICC (village) 0.139  
ICC (village + household) 0.583  
ICC (village + household + child) 0.583  
Likelihood ratio test between single- and multi-level models: χ2 = 34.52***
  1. ICC Intra-class correlation coefficient; *p-value <0.05 **p-value <0.01. ***p-value <0.001.
  2. ¶2012 was used as the reference category because CCMm was nearly halted that year.