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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of children by site

From: Frequency and correlates of malaria over-treatment in areas of differing malaria transmission: a cross-sectional study in rural Western Kenya

   Study site  
Variable All sites Kisii Homa Bay  
n % n (%) n (%) p
  n = 1,362 n = 685 n = 677  
Demographics     
Child’s sex: Female 652 (44.7) 306 (44.7) 346 (51.1) 0.017
Age in years (Mean ± SD) (Median) 35.4 ± 34 (34) 3.1 ± 2.1 (2.9) 2.8 ± 1.6 (2.8) 0.012
Age (years)     <0.001
 ≤2 yr 501 (36.8) 256 (37.4) 245 (36.2)  
 3-4 yr 721 (53.0) 335 (49.0) 386 (57.1)  
 ≥5 yr 138 (10.1) 93 (13.6) 45 (6.7)  
Uses water from unimproved sourcesi 171 (12.6) 26 (3.8) 145 (21.4) <0.001
Primary caregiver’s characteristics     
Education     <0.001
 College/university 159 (11.7) 101 (14.8) 58 (8.6)  
 Secondary 425 (31.2) 273 (39.9) 152 (22.5)  
 At most primary 777 (57.1) 310 (45.3) 467 (69.0)  
Monthly income     <0.001
 ≤$50 550 (40.4) 189 (27.6) 361 (53.3)  
 $50-100 495 (36.4) 275 (40.2) 220 (32.5)  
 >$100 316 (23.2) 220 (32.2) 96 (14.2)  
Children’s clinical presentations     
Malnutrition     
 MUAC < 12.5 40 (2.9) 15 (2.2) 25 (3.7) 0.087
 Wasting (WHZ < −2)ii 193 (15.9) 115 (19.5) 78 (12.4) 0.001
 Stunted (HAZ < −2)ii 181 (14.5) 83 (13.6) 98 (15.4) 0.272
 Underweight (WAZ < −2)iii 127 (10.2) 52 (8.5) 75 (11.8) 0.044
Temperature (°C)     <0.001
 37.5-37.9 205 (15.1) 138 (20.1) 67 (9.9)  
 38.0-38.9 626 (46.0) 308 (45.0) 318 (47.0)  
 39.0-39.9 441 (32.4) 202 (29.5) 239 (35.3)  
 > = 40.0 90 (6.6) 37 (5.4) 53 (7.8)  
High grade fever (>39°C) 468 (34.4) 206 (30.1) 262 (38.7) 0.001
≥IMCI danger sign(s) presentiv 466 (34.2) 110 (16.1) 356 (52.6) <0.001
 Unable to drink/breastfeed 198 14 184  
 Vomits everything 271 62 209  
 Convulsions 81 30 51  
 Lethargic/unconscious 113 43 70  
Past clinical history     
Has had fever lasting ≥7 days   263 (38.4) 79 (11.8) <0.001
Sought healthcare elsewhere 388 (28.5) 232 (33.9) 156 (23.0) <0.001
Taken anti-malarials last 7 days 192 (14.1) 86 (12.6) 106 (15.7) 0.1000
Taken antibiotics last 7 days 84 (6.2) 52 (7.6) 32 (4.7) 0.024
Not received all age-appropriate vaccines 324 (23.8) 11 (11.8) 243 (35.9%) <0.001
Laboratory results     
 Mother HIV -infectedv 151 (11.4) 22 (3.3) 129 (19.5) <0.001
 Child HIV-infectedvi 39 (2.9) 9 (1.3) 30 (4.5) 0.001
 Malaria (smear or RDT) 356 (26.1) 46 (6.7) 310 (45.8) <0.001
 Bacteraemia 52 (3.8) 27 (3.9) 25 (3.7) 0.811
  1. iUnpiped water, unprotected boreholes, wells and springs, water from vendors.
  2. iiValues outside plausible range for 95 children from Kisii and 50 from Homa Bay.
  3. iiiValues outside plausible range for 74 children from Kisii and 42 from Homa Bay.
  4. ivUnable to feed/drink, vomits everything, convulsion, unconscious, stiff neck.
  5. vMother’s HIV status unknown for 25 children from Kisii and 15 from Homa bay.
  6. viHIV status uknown for 15 children from Kisii and 3 from Homa Bay.