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Table 4 Risk factors for case-HHs

From: Plasmodium vivax malaria at households: spatial clustering and risk factors in a low endemicity urban area of the northwestern Peruvian coast

   Control HHs (N = 117) Case HHs (N = 117) Unadjusted Adjusted +
   % n % n OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
HH in malaria spatial cluster identified by Satscan         
  No 74.4 87 70.9 83 1.0    
Yes 25.6 30 29.1 34 1.2 [0.7;2.1]   
House distance to water drain         
  >200 metres 67.5 79 47.0 55 1.0   1.0  
≤200 metres 32.5 38 53.0 62 2.3* [1.4;4.0] 2.3* [1.3;4.0]
HH size         
  ≤5 individuals 71.8 84 60.7 71 1.0   1.0  
  >5 individuals 28.2 33 39.3 43 1.7° [0.95;2.9] 1.8* [1.0;3.2]
Main material in walls         
  Concrete, brick 34.2 40 22.2 26 1.0    
Other material (wood, adobe, etc.) 65.8 77 77.8 91 1.8* [1.0;3.3]   
Main material in floor         
  Cement or other fine finish 27.4 32 30.8 36 1.0    
  Other material (soil, stone, etc.) 72.7 85 69.2 81 0.8 [0.5;1.5]   
Potable water availability         
  Permanent (every day, all day) 62.9 43 43.0 49 1.0   1.0  
Not permanent/ No availability 37.1 73 57.0 65 2.3* [1.3;3.8] 1.8* [1.1;3.2]
Bathroom connected to sewage system         
  Yes 53.1 60 50.0 58 1.0    
No 46.9 53 50.0 58 1.1 [0.7;1.9]   
Electricity available         
  Yes 91.3 105 90.4 103 1.0    
No 8.7 10 9.7 11 1.1 [0.5;2.8]   
Has domestic or peridomestic animals         
  No 94.7 108 82.5 94 1.0   1.0  
Yes 6.3 6 17.5 20 3.8* [1.5;9.9] 3.6* [1.3;9.5]
Bed net ownership         
  None 39.3 46 26.5 31 1.0    
>2 individuals/bed net 35.9 42 39.3 46 1.6 [0.9;3.0]   
≤2 individuals/bed net 24.8 29 34.2 40 2.1* [1.1;4.0]   
Bed net use by head of HH         
  Always 65.8 77 62.4 73 1.0    
Never/Sometimes 34.2 40 37.6 44 1.2 [0.7;1.9]   
Any HH member with outdoor occupation the past year ^         
  No 88.0 103 84.6 99 1.0    
Yes 12.0 14 15.4 18 1.3 [0.6;2.8]   
  1. +Risk factors with p < = 0.2 were included in the multivariate logistic regression analysis.
  2. *p < 0.05.
  3. °p > 0.05 and <0.2.
  4. Dogs, cats.
  5. fowl, pig.
  6. ^Farmer, moto-taxi driver.