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Table 3 Associations between malaria infection and outdoor exposure in children aged 2 – 14 on Bioko in 2013

From: Outdoor biting by Anopheles mosquitoes on Bioko Island does not currently impact on malaria control

   Infection prevalence %, (N) Odds ratio (95% CI) p -value Adjusted odds ratio* (95% CI) p -value
Child spent any time outside between the hours of 7 pm and 6 am No 27.1 (4920) 1 0.20 1 0.87
Yes 29.2 (1357) 1.11 (0.94 - 1.31) 0.98 (0.82 - 1.17)
Estimated number of outdoor bites received by child 0 27.7 (4122) 1 0.12 1 0.17
> 0 to <1 30.25 (628) 1.13 (0.90 – 1.44) 1.11 (0.83 – 1.50)
≥ 1 to < 4 23.6 (670) 0.81 (0.63 – 1.04) 0.74 (0.55 – 1.01)
≥ 4 31.8 (189) 1.22 (0.83 – 1.78) 1.09 (0.61 – 1.94)
Site level percentage of bites which occur outdoors < 16% 27.7 (775) 1 0.31 1 0.70
16% to 18% 16.1 (1111) 0.50 (0.14 – 1.73) 0.44 (0.10 – 2.00)
18% to 21% 28.6 (2703) 1.04 (0.42 – 2.60) 0.87 (0.19 – 4.12)
> 21% 34.5 (1570) 1.37 (0.60 – 3.15) 0.98 (0.20 – 4.93)
  1. *Adjusted for spray coverage, net use, age, site level SCR, SES, age, sex, sleeping in a house with closed eaves and travelling off the island.