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Table 2 Quotes illustrating perceived symptoms of Jinne attacks

From: Foul wind, spirits and witchcraft: illness conceptions and health-seeking behaviour for malaria in the Gambia

Perceived symptoms Respondent
For the Jinne if it attacks a person will be shouting and collapsing up and down, and will sometimes sleep and at times wake up and be aggressive. Middle-aged man, Imam; Wolof, Boiram
They can make an individual to fall unconscious, if it wants to disturb you most it makes you collapse totally. Some will go to the marabouts and take things to take bath, all those are ways of protecting oneself against the Jinne. Middle-aged woman, farmer; Fula, Keneba
They (Jinne) can also cause it (malaria) in a way like if you have contact with the air that blows from them then that can also cause it. Sleeping outside can also give an individual some troubles because if you do so, you can come into contact with some other things. (…) When their air touches you while you were not aware of it, that can also cause you harm. Young woman, farmer; Mandinka, Niji
I: Now, if an individual is attacked by the Jinne what are the symptoms that he shows? Middle-aged woman, farmer; Mandinka Niji
R: It has different signs; some will get unconscious, and will start doing some other dubious things. Then people will start saying that let us try the traditional means to see whether the person has been attacked by the ‘bad wind’.
What the Jinne can do is that they will twist your mind upside down; it makes some collapse and fall unconscious, they can also do that. They make some people mad who will then just be wandering on the streets and making false utterances that are beyond the comprehension of a conscious person. Old man, retired; Mandinka Niji
They (Jinne) are found in the bush; you know there is a time that is not safe for an individual to go to the bush. If you go to the bush during such times, you are liable to be attacked by the Jinne. Middle-aged woman, farmer; Mandinka, Niji