Antibodies to malaria antigens at enrolment and at 36 gestation weeks. (A) Antibodies to variant surface antigens expressed by placental-binding and non-placental-binding parasite isolates. (B) Antibodies to merozoite antigens and schizont extract. Data presented as box plots with the Y axis representing antibody levels as a percentage of the positive control. The whiskers denote the 10th and the 90th percentiles with outliers. Wilcoxon matched pairs test performed for antibody comparisons between enrolment and 36 gestation weeks. N = 1,009.