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Table 3 Relationship of maternal nutritional status and socioeconomic status to malaria antibody immunity at 36 weeks

From: The impact of lipid-based nutrient supplementation on anti-malarial antibodies in pregnant women in a randomized controlled trial

  Body mass index at enrolment (kg/m 2 ) Socioeconomic status (high/low)
  Unadjusted Adjusted a Adjusted p-value a Unadjusted Adjusted b Adjusted p-value b
IgG to placental-binding isolate VSA −0.88 (−1.66, −0.10)* −0.72 (−1.57, 0.12) 0.095 −13.9 (−18.25, −9.58)* −9.54 (−14.74, −4.35)* <0.001*
Opsonizing antibodies to placental-binding isolate VSA −0.86 (−1.65, −0.06)* −1.04 (−1.84, −0.24)* 0.011* −14.7 (−19.18, −10.27)* −5.47 (−10.43, −0.50)* 0.031*
Opsonizing antibodies to non-placental-binding isolate VSA −0.53 (−1.11, 0.06) 0.25 (−0.20, 0.70) 0.272 −4.07 (−7.42, −0 .70)* −0.59 (−3.38, 2.20) 0.678
MSP-1 19kD −0.08 (−0.53, 0.37) 0.45 (−0.02, 0.92) 0.060 −1.62 (−4.19, 0.96) −1.39 (−4.36, 1.57) 0.355
MSP-2 −0.40 (−0.88, 0.08) 0.14 (−0.37, 0.65) 0.595 −2.41 (−5.12, 0.30) −0.26 (−3.46, 2.94) 0.874
MSP-3 −0.01 (−0.47, 0.44) 0.06 (−0.57, 0.69) 0.856 −0.83 (−3.43, 1.77) 0.38 (−3.55, 4.31) 0.849
PfRh2 −0.30 (−0.77, 0.17) −0.66 (−1.32, −0.004)* 0.051* −0.49 (−3.17, 2.18) 0.49 (−3.64, 4.61) 0.817
EBA-175 −0.15 (−0.46, 0.16) 0.11 (−0.28, 0.50) 0.573 −1.12 (−2.89, 0.65) −0.22 (−2.66, 2.22) 0.858
Schizont extract −0.64 (−1.35, 0.07) −1.22 ( −2.08, −0.37)* 0.005* −5.17 (−9.24, −1.10)* −0.55 (−6.12, 5.01) 0.845
  1. Data presented as regression coefficient (95% confidence interval).
  2. aPercentage antibody levels at 36 gestation week adjusted for gravidity, maternal age, HIV, malaria infection at enrolment, bed net use, location of residence, antibody levels at enrolment, socioeconomic status, supplementation group.
  3. bPercentage antibody levels at 36 gestation week adjusted for gravidity, maternal age, HIV, malaria infection at enrolment, bed net use, location of residence, antibody levels at enrolment, body mass index at enrolment, supplementation group.
  4. Statistical test: Multivariate linear regression analysis. Data reported as regression coefficient (95% confidence interval) and p-values. *Significant associations.