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Table 2 Summary of findings of meta-analyses of the association between specific house features and malaria

From: The evidence for improving housing to reduce malaria: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Comparison Outcome Study design Total studies Effect estimate
(95 % CI)
1 Modern versus traditional housing 1.1 Malaria infection 1.1.1 Case–control, cross-sectional and cohort studies (crude OR) 9 0.46 [0.33, 0.62]
1.1.2 Case–control, cross-sectional and cohort studies (adjusted OR) 5 0.53 [0.42, 0.67]
1.2 Clinical malaria 1.2.1 Case–control and cross-sectional studies (crude OR) 1 0.32 [0.19, 0.54]
1.2.2 Case–control and cross-sectional studies (adjusted OR) 1 0.35 [0.20, 0.62]
1.2.3 Cohort studies (crude RR) 3 0.22 [0.14, 0.35]
1.2.4 Cohort studies (adjusted RR) 3 0.55 [0.36, 0.84]
2 Screening1 2.1 Anaemia in children aged 0–11 years 2.1.1 Randomized controlled trials (adjusted OR) 1 0.52 [0.34, 0.80]
2.1.2 Case–control, cross-sectional and cohort studies (crude OR) 2 0.65 [0.33, 1.30]
2.1.3 Case–control, cross-sectional and cohort studies (adjusted OR) 1 0.56 [0.24, 1.27]
2.2 Malaria infection 2.2.1 Randomized controlled trials (adjusted OR) 1 0.95 [0.63, 1.43]
2.2.2 Case–control, cross-sectional and cohort studies (crude OR) 5 0.35 [0.13, 0.98]
2.2.3 Case–control, cross-sectional and cohort studies (adjusted OR) 2 0.93 [0.82, 1.05]
2.3 Clinical malaria 2.3.1 Case–control and cross-sectional studies (crude OR) 1 1.16 [0.82, 1.64]
2.3.2 Cohort studies (crude RR) 5 0.71 [0.49, 1.04]
2.3.3 Cohort studies (adjusted RR) 3 0.56 [0.46, 0.67]
3 Main wall material2 3.1 Anaemia in children aged 0–11 years 3.1.1 Case–control, cross-sectional and cohort studies (crude OR) 1 0.58 [0.33, 1.02]
3.1.2 Case–control, cross-sectional and cohort studies (adjusted OR) 1 0.57 [0.29, 1.12]
3.2 Malaria infection 3.2.1 Case–control, cross-sectional and cohort studies (crude OR) 12 0.57 [0.42, 0.78]
3.2.2 Case–control, cross-sectional and cohort studies (adjusted OR) 7 0.73 [0.62, 0.85]
3.3 Clinical malaria 3.3.1 Case–control and cross-sectional studies (crude OR) 7 0.63 [0.43, 0.93]
3.3.2 Case–control and cross-sectional studies (adjusted OR) 1 0.16 [0.06, 0.44]
3.3.3 Cohort studies (crude RR) 1 2.07 [1.18, 3.63]
3.3.4 Cohort studies (adjusted RR) 2 1.05 [0.48, 2.30]
4 Main roof material2 4.1 Anaemia in children aged 0–11 years 4.1.1 Case–control, cross-sectional and cohort studies (crude OR) 1 0.71 [0.45, 1.12]
4.2 Malaria infection 4.2.1 Case–control, cross-sectional and cohort studies (crude OR) 9 0.64 [0.48, 0.86]
4.2.2 Case–control, cross-sectional and cohort studies (adjusted OR) 6 0.83 [0.64, 1.08]
4.3 Clinical malaria 4.3.1 Case–control and cross-sectional studies (crude OR) 4 0.86 [0.48, 1.53]
4.3.2 Case–control and cross-sectional studies (adjusted OR) 1 0.30 [0.13, 0.66]
4.3.3 Cohort studies (crude RR) 2 0.59 [0.52, 0.67]
4.3.4 Cohort studies (adjusted RR) 3 0.79 [0.70, 0.88]
5 Main floor material2 5.1 Anaemia in children aged 0–11 years 5.1.1 Case–control, cross-sectional and cohort studies (crude OR) 1 0.78 [0.45, 1.34]
5.2 Malaria infection 5.2.1 Case–control, cross-sectional and cohort studies (crude OR) 1 1.20 [0.69, 2.09]
5.2.2 Case–control, cross-sectional and cohort studies (adjusted OR) 2 0.74 [0.57, 0.96]
5.3 Clinical malaria 5.3.1 Case–control and cross-sectional studies (crude OR) 1 0.19 [0.06, 0.57]
5.3.2 Cohort studies (adjusted RR) 1 0.81 [0.62, 1.06]
6 Eaves3 6.1 Malaria infection 6.1.1 Case–control, cross-sectional and cohort studies (crude OR) 4 0.70 [0.58, 0.84]
6.1.2 Case–control, cross-sectional and cohort studies (adjusted OR) 3 0.78 [0.70, 0.87]
6.2 Clinical malaria 6.2.1 Case–control and cross-sectional studies (crude OR) 5 0.76 [0.55, 1.07]
6.2.2 Case–control and cross-sectional studies (adjusted OR) 1 0.53 [0.36, 0.80]
6.2.3 Cohort studies (crude RR) 1 0.75 [0.50, 1.12]
6.2.4 Cohort studies (adjusted RR) 2 0.71 [0.46, 1.11]
7 Ceiling4 7.1 Clinical malaria 7.1.1 Case–control and cross-sectional studies (crude OR) 3 0.68 [0.56, 0.83]
7.1.2 Case–control and cross-sectional studies (adjusted OR) 1 0.65 [0.46, 0.93]
8 Elevation5 8.1 Malaria infection 8.1.1 Case–control and cross-sectional studies (crude OR) 1 1.00 [1.00, 1.00]
  1. 1Screened versus unscreened; 2 Modern versus traditional main wall, roof and floor material: traditional homes were considered to have mud walls, a thatched roof and earth floors in sub-Saharan Africa (except in areas of high rainfall including Equatorial Guinea, where the basic wall material is typically concrete or wood [18]); mud or stone walls, a thatched, wood or mud roof and earth floors in North Africa; wood or bamboo walls, a thatched roof and wooden (stilted) floors in Southeast Asia; mud or wood walls, a thatched roof and earth or wooden (stilted) floors in South Asia; adobe or mud and wood walls, a thatched roof and earth floors in South America. 3 Closed versus open eaves; 4 Presence versus absence of a ceiling; 5 Elevated versus non-elevated houses