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Table 1 Characteristics and clinical presentation of patients at recruitment

From: An operational comparative study of quinine and artesunate for the treatment of severe malaria in hospitals and health centres in the Democratic Republic of Congo: the MATIAS study

  Quinine (N = 399) Artesunate (N = 350)
  2–59 months (N = 248) >5 years (N = 151) 2–59 months (N = 215) >5 years (N = 135)
Sex     
 Female 122 (49 %) 72 (48 %) 115 (53 %) 71 (53 %)
Age 24 (7–53) 10 (5–48) 24 (7–48) 8 (5–48)
Medical history (past 30 days)     
 Other malaria episode 18 (7 %) 7 (5 %) 16 (7 %) 16 (12 %)
 Fever (N = 398) 90 (37 %) 78 (52 %) 59 (27 %) 76 (56 %)
 Pretreatment with anti-malarial 31 (12 %) 20 (13 %) 20 (9 %) 20 (15 %)
 Other treatment(s) received 113 (46 %) 75 (50 %) 98 (46 %) 83 (61 %)
 Other major health problem(s) 6 (2 %) 3 (2 %) 0 (0 %) 4 (3 %)
 Episode of convulsion (N = 394) 34 (14 %) 10 (7 %) 13 (6 %) 11 (8 %)
 Known hypersensitivity to other drugs 0 (0 %) 5 (3 %) 2 (1 %) 5 (7 %)
Signs and symptoms on admission     
 Fever 220 (89 %) 129 (85 %) 197 (92 %) 121 (90 %)
 Fever before enrolment (days and range) 3 (2–4) 3 (2–5) 3 (1–7) 3 (1–7)
 Vomiting 100 (40 %) 78 (52 %) 113 (53 %) 78 (58 %)
 Coma 23 (9 %) 12 (8 %) 5 (2 %) 11 (8 %)
 Reported convulsions 72 (29 %) 19 (13 %) 59 (27 %) 14 (10 %)
 Blantyre coma score (8–24 months) 3 (2–5) 4 (3–8)
 Glasgow coma score (>2 years) 10.5 (5–13) 10 (8–15) 7.5 (4–5) NA
 Pallor NA NA 77 (36 %) 20 (15 %)
 Jaundice 3 (1 %) 4 (3 %) 7 (3 %) 2 (1 %)
 Shock 10 (4 %) 2 (1 %) 2 (1 %) 2 (1 %)
 Respiratory distress 128 (52 %) 58 (38 %) 96 (45 %) 64 (47 %)
 Severe anaemia (<5 g/dl) (N = 326 Q; 334 A) 8.1 (3 %) a 9.1 (2 %) a 15 (7 %) b 1 (1 %) b
Parasite count (per μl); geometric mean (95 % CI) 17 068 (12 119-24 038) c 12 022 (7 040-20 527) c 22 289 (15 498-32 057) c 12 346 (7 812-19 511) c
 Prostration 204 (82 %) 122 (81 %) 171 (79 %) 120 (89 %)
 Urine colouration (N = 391) 2 (1 %) 2 (1 %) 10 (5 %) 8 (6 %)
Clinical examination on admission     
 Weight (kg and SD) 11.1 (3.0) 33.2 (17) 11.2 (4) 27.6 (15)
 Temperature (°C and SD) (N = 398) 38.1 (1) 38.3 (1) 38.1 (1) 38.4 (1)
 Pulse 125 (70–180) 102 (64–148) 119 (60–171) 94 (60–140)
 Respiratory rate per minute 42.5 (28–72) 39.0 (24–60) 40 (24–72) 40 (20–58)
Co-morbidity 82 (34 %) 51 (34 %) 80 (37 %) 58 (43 %)
  1. Data are summarized as numbers (%), median (90 % central range) or mean (SD)
  2. NA not available
  3. a Clinical assessment only
  4. b HemoCue
  5. c The initial parasitaemia was calculated only for those patients for whom the biological confirmation was done by thick blood smear
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