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Table 3 Relative antibody responses against P. falciparum antigens at delivery by treatment arm in Madang, PNG, adjusted for confounding and interaction variables

From: Malaria preventive therapy in pregnancy and its potential impact on immunity to malaria in an area of declining transmission

Variables IgG schizont extract IgG PfRh2 IgG MSP2 IgG MSP3 Opsonizing IgG E8B-ICAM Opsonizing IgG CS2
  Coeff (95 % Cl) p Coeff (95 % Cl) p Coeff (95 % Cl) p Coeff (95 % Cl) p Coeff (95 % Cl) p Coeff (95 % Cl) p
Intervention arma −3.0 (−13.4, 7.4) 0.6 −3.6 (−10.9, 3.7) 0.3 −7.4 (−17.9, 3.1) 0.2 2.6 (−7.0, 12.2) 0.6 1.0 (−14.2, 16.2)   −7.4 (−19.4, 4.5) 0.2
Gravidity             
1             
2 −2.0 (−8.3, 4.3) 0.5 −4.6 (−9.1, 0.2) 0.06 1.0 (−5.44, 7.42) 0.8 −0.7 (−6.6, 5.1) 0.8 50.3 (42.8, 57.9) <0.0001 9.3 (2.5,16.1) 0.007
3 1.6 (−4.5, 7.6) 0.6 −0.5 (−4.8, 3.8) 0.8 1.9 (−4.3, 8.1) 0.6 5.72 (−0.04, 11.4) 0.06 32.8 (25.6, 40.1) <0.0001 24.3 (17.9, 30.8) <0.0001
Overall bed net use             
No             
Intermittent −1.8 (−6.0, 2.4) 0.4 −0.5 (−3.4, 2.5) 0.8 −1.6 (−5.9, 2.7) 0.5 0.3 (−5.6, 10.5) 0.9 1.2 (−3.8, 6.2) 0.6 −2.6 (−7.2, 1.9) 0.3
Regular −13.0 (−45.2, 19.2) 0.4 −5.3 (−28.1, 17.6) 0.7 −12.0 (−45.0, 20.9) 0.5 −2.5 (−32.7, 27.6) 0.9 25.4 (−13.1, 63.9) 0.2 −10.6 (−45.0, 23.8) 0.6
Residence             
Urban             
Peri-urban 0.3 (−8.4, 8.8) 0.9 −1.3 (−7.1, 5.9) 0.7 1.5 (−7.2, 10.2) 0.7 2.0 (−5.9, 10.0) 0.6 2.2 (−10.4, 14.9) 0.4 −1.9 (−11.8, 7.9) 0.7
Rural 8.6 (1.2, 15.9) 0.02 5.0 (−0.2, 10.0) 0.06 8.5 (1.2, 16.0) 0.02 8.5 (1.7, 15.2) 0.01 −4.1 (−14.8, 6.6) 0.7 −0.4 (−8.8, 8.0) 0.9
Migrant 13.0 (−1.3, 27.3) 0.07 −0.1 (−10.1, 10.0) 0.9 13.3 (−1.1, 27.7) 0.07 −1.1 (−14.3, 12.1) 0.9 6.4 (−14.4, 27.3) 0.5 2.7 (−13.7, 19.1) 0.8
Ethnicity             
Madang/Morobe             
Sepik −4.7 (−11.0, 11.0) 0.2 0.3 (−4.7, 5.2) 0.9 −5.4 (−12.6, 1.7) 0.1 1.7 (−4.8, 8.2) 0.6 −1.6 (−11.9, 8.7) 0.8 4.7 (−12.8, 3.4) 0.2
Highlands −12.3 (−21.9, −2.6) 0.01 −0.5 (−7.2, 6.2) 0.9 −10.9 (−20.6, −1.2) 0.03 −1.0 (−9.9, 7.7) 0.82 −3.7 (−17.7, 10.4) 0.8 −6.4 (−17.4, 4.7) 0.4
Others −4.4 (−13.9, 5.2) 0.4 −2.5 (−9.3, 4.2) 0.5 −7.5 (−17.0, 2.2) 0.1 1.3 (−7.5, 10.1) 0.8 −2.4 (−16.5, 11.7) 0.9 −2.6 (13.5, 8.3) 0.6
SP-AZ-graviditya             
1             
2 −5.6 (−14.77, 3.56) 0.2 7.1 (0.57, −13.56) 0.1 −6.5 (−15.90, 2.87) 0.2 −3.5 (−12.10, 5.06) 0.4 −6.5 (−17.48, 4.50) 0.3 −0.3 (−10.1, 9.5) 1.0
3 −5.5 (−14.3, 5.6) 0.3 1.2 (−5.1, 7.5) 0.7 −7.6 (−16.7, 1.5) 0.1 −7.5 (−15.8, 0.8) 0.08 −5.6 (−16.2, 5.0) 0.3 0.01 (−9.5, 9.5) 1.0
SP-AZ-residencea             
Urban             
Peri-urban 5.0 (−7.7, 17.6) 0.4 2.1 (−6.7, 11.0) 0.6 2.9 (−9.9, 15.7) 0.7 −1.1 (−12.8, 10.6) 0.9 −8.2 (−26.8, 10.3) 0.4 8.4 (−6.1, 23.0) 0.3
Rural 2.7 (−8.2, 13.6) 0.6 2.7 (−5.0, 10.3) 0.5 7.5 (−3.5, 18.5) 0.2 −3.9 (−14.0, 6.1) 0.4 −2.8 (−18.7, 13.1) 0.7 7.7 (−4.8, 2.2) 0.2
Migrant 1.2 (−19.5, 21.9) 0.9 7.2 (−7.3, 21.7) 0.3 −5.63 (−26.55, 15.29) 0.6 3.7 (−15.43, 22.78) 0.7 −17.6 (−47.8, 12.6) 0.3 0.5 (−23.3, 24.2) 1.0
SP-AZ-ethnicitya             
Madang/Morobe             
Sepik 0.02 (−11.0, 11.00) 1.0 1.9 (−5.9, 9.6) 0.6 5.1 (−6.0, 16.2) 0.4 −4.6 (−14.7, 5.6) 0.4 −1.6 (−17.7, 14.4) 0.8 11.5 (−1.1, 24.1) 0.07
Highlands −1.0 (−16.0, 14.0) 0.9 −1.3 (−11.8, 9.2) 0.8 1.6 (−13.6, 16.7) 0.8 −5.53 (−19.4, 8.3) 0.4 −2.8 (−24.7, 19.1) 0.8 6.7 (−10.6, 23.9) 0.5
Others 0.5 (−14.2, 13.1) 0.9 3.3 (−6.3, 12.9) 0.5 6.6 (−7.2, 20.5) 0.4 −3.6 (−16.2, 9.0) 0.6 −1.0 (−21.1, 19.2) 0.9 −3.6 (−19.3, 12.1) 0.7
  1. Data represented as coefficients and 95 % confidence interval (Multiple linear regression models), P-values are also shown
  2. SP sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, AZ azithromycin, against control group (SP-CQ), CQ chloroquine
  3. aRefers to relative antibody responses in intervention group (SP-AZ). A positive coefficient implies an increase of antibody levels. A negative coefficient implies a decrease of antibody levels. Significant associations (p < 0.05) highlighted in bold