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Table 3 Study settings by country

From: Design of a study to determine the impact of insecticide resistance on malaria vector control: a multi-country investigation

  Sudan Kenya Cameroon Benin India
Study locations El Hoosh and Hag Abdalla (Gezira State); Galabat (Gedarif State); New Halfa (Kassala State) Districts of Teso, Rachuonyo, Nyando and Bondo (Western Kenya) Districts of Garoua, Pitoa and Mayo Oulo (North Region) Districts of Ifangni, Sakété, Pobé and Kétou (Departement de Plateau) Subdistrict of Keshkal (Kondagaon, Chhattisgarh)
Predominant malaria vectors An. arabiensis An. gambiae s.s., An. arabiensis and An funestus An arabiensis, An. gambiae s.s. and An funestus An. gambiae s.s. An. culicifacies
Vector control Interventions High coverage of LLINs (PermaNet 2.0) in all study clusters. In each study area half of clusters randomly allocated to receive additionally IRS with bendiocarbb, balanced by baseline kdr frequencies High coverage of LLINs (PermaNet 2.0 and Olyset Net) in all clusters. Rachuonyo and Nyando received IRS with deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in 2012, but no IRS was carried out subsequently High coverage of LLINs (PermaNet 2.0) in all clusters High coverage of LLINs (primarily Olyset Net) in all clusters High coverage of LLINs (PermaNet 2.0) in all clusters. Half of clusters randomly allocated to receive additionally IRS with bendiocarb
Baseline insecticide resistance (cluster-specific range) Kdr frequency by cluster ranged from 8.3 to 70.8% (2010); WHO Bioassay mortality to deltamethrin in sentinel clusters ranged from 47 to 100% (2011) Kdr frequency by cluster not available at baseline (2011); WHO Bioassay mortality to deltamethrin ranged from 1 to 100% (2011) Kdr frequency by cluster ranged from 9 to 65% (2011)
WHO Bioassay mortality to deltamethrin ranged from 43 to 100% (2012)
Kdr frequency by cluster ranged from 44 to 93% (2011)
WHO Bioassay mortality to deltamethrin ranged from 20 to 100% (2011)
WHO Bioassay mortality to deltamethrin ranged from 86 to 100%; WHO Bioassay mortality to bendiocarb ranged from ranged from 27 to 98%
PfPR 210 Endemcity classa Low High High High Low
  1. a PfPR 210 is the proportion of 2–10 year olds in the general population that are infected with P. falciparum, averaged over the 12 months of 2010 as estimated by Malaria Atlas Project (MAP) [30]; low = 0% < PfPR 210  ≤ 5%; intermediate = 5% < PfPR 210  ≤ 40%; high = PfPR 210  > 40%.
  2. bIn Galabat deltamethrin was sprayed in 2011 and 2012.