Localization of small VSA in infected erythrocytes using confocal immunofluorescence analysis. a Asexual parasites of the 3D7 parasite clone at the trophozoite and schizont stages were fixed with methanol and small VSA localization was visualized using antibodies directed against RIFIN (α-RIF40.2, α-RIF44), STEVOR (α-PFL2610w, α-MAL13P1.7, α-PFC0025c, α-PFA0750w) and PfMC-2TM (α-PfMC-2TM-SC, α-PfMC-2TM-CT) proteins (green). Nuclei were stained with Hoechst33342 (blue). b Co-localization of α-RIF44, STEVOR α-PFL2610w and α-PfMC-2TM-SC (green) with human spectrin (red). c Co-localization of α-RIF44, STEVOR α-PFC0025c and α-PfMC-2TM-CT (green) with SBP1 (red). d Co-localization of STEVOR α-MAL13P1.7 or α-PfMC-2TM-SC (green) with the rhoptry marker RhopH2 (red). e Co-localization of α-RIF44 and STEVOR α-PFL2610w (green) with the merozoite surface protein MSP1 (red).