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Table 6 Plasma cytokine levels at enrolment of Beninese children, in relation to host and parasite characteristics

From: Immunoglobulin response to Plasmodium falciparum RESA proteins in uncomplicated and severe malaria

Group (n) IFN-γ TNF-α IL-10
Clinical groups
 SM (54) 10.4 (3.1–30.9)a 23.5 (0.0–142.5) 34.2 (16.0–66.9)
 UM (48) 5.3 (0.0–39.5) 0.0 (0.0–8.2) 45.9 (24.9–78.0)
 P b 0.37 0.004 0.28
Antibody responder groups
 Group A (33) 8.3 (2.1–31.3) 0.0 (0.0–88.3) 36.5 (23.7–90.0)
 Group B (31) 5.2 (2.1–27.5) 0.0 (0.0–125.4) 43.7 (15.4–64.6)
 Group C (38) 10.3 (3.1–33.0) 0.0 (0.0–92.5) 34.2 (14.1–64.3)
 P 0.70 0.98 0.64
 P2—positive response (38) 10.3 (3.1–33.0) 0.0 (0.0–92.5) 34.2 (14.1–64.3)
 P2—negative response (64) 6.0 (2.0–31.3) 0.0 (0.0–90.2) 42.2 (19.5–78.0)
 P 0.42 0.99 0.66
 rRESA-1B—positive response (55) 9.9 (3.0–35.1) 0.0 (0.0–109.9) 42.7 (16.9–64.2)
 rRESA-1B—negative response (47) 7.4 (2.0–19.6) 0.0 (0.0–69.6) 34.9 (18.7–87.0)
 P 0.20 0.72 0.99
 rRESA-3B—positive response (42) 5.0 (2.0–27.8) 0.0 (0.0 37.9) 39.1 (15.4–63.8)
 rRESA-3B—negative response (60) 9.8 (3.0–36.9) 0.0 (0.0–134.1) 38.7 (19.4–72.0)
 P 0.12 0.09 0.75
 HbAA (82) 9.1 (2.4–30.9) 0.0 (0.0–85.1) 41.4 (18.0–79.4)
 HbAS or HbSS (10) 12.6 (2.2–36.1) 0.0 (0.0–503.4) 37.2 (16.4–56.8)
 HbAC or HbCC (10) 6.5 (2.7–29.8) 0.0 (0.0–60.9) 35.7 (19.1–52.8)
 P 0.99 0.42 0.69
 resa2 T1526G allele W (86) 9.1 (2.2–29.8) 0.0 (0.00–68.41) 35.2 (17.5–65.1)
 resa2 T1526G allele WM (6) 37.3 (2.7–86.4) 46.0 (15.2–200.3) 98.3 (70.4–176.8)
 resa2 T1526G allele M (10) 9.6 (2.5–34.5) 32.0 (0.0–116.4) 24.7 (12.2–83.5)
 P 0.68 0.34 0.02
  1. aMedian values (25th–75th percentiles) expressed in pg/ml−1, whole population group considered.
  2. b P value for the Mann–Whitney U test (two groups) or Kruskal–Wallis test (three groups); significant P value < 0.01.