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Table 1 Erythrocyte disorders and the possible mechanisms by which they protect against malaria

From: The influence of host genetics on erythrocytes and malaria infection: is there therapeutic potential?

Erythrocyte disorder Malaria susceptibility Invasion Growth Cytoadherence Erythrocyte senescence References
Sickle cell trait (HbAS) ↓ (Low oxygen) or normal ↓ (Low oxygen) [61, 6870, 104, 122, 125]
Sickle cell disease (HbSS) ↓ (Low oxygen) or ↑ ↓ (Low oxygen) Unknown [61, 70, 104]
HbAC Normal Unknown [68, 69, 105]
HbCC Normal Unknown [6163, 69, 105]
HbAE Normal Unknown Unknown [178]
HbEE Unclear Normal ↓ or normal Unknown Unknown [64]
α+ thalassaemia (−α/αα) Normal ↓ (High oxygen) Normal [27, 65, 106]
α0 thalassaemia (−/αα) ↓ or normal ↓ or normal Unknown [106]
HbH thalassaemia (−/−α) ↓ or normal [66, 67, 106, 122]
β0 thalassaemia (−/β) Unclear Normal ↓ (High oxygen) Unknown [65, 122]
G6PD deficiency Normal ↓or normal Unknown [3, 129131]
PK deficiency Unknown Normal Unknown [133]
Duffy negativity ↓ (In P. vivax) ↓ (in P. vivax) Normal Unknown Unknown [911]
ABO blood group ↓ (O type) ↑
(A and AB type)
Normal Normal Unknown ↑ (For O type) [135, 136]
CR1 deficiency Unclear Unknown Unknown Unknown [2527]
GYPA deficiency Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown [17, 18, 20]
GYPB deficiency Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown [21, 24]
GYPC deficiency Unclear Unknown Unknown Unknown [23]
Basigin deficiency Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown [28]
CD55 deficiency Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown [31]
Southeast Asian ovalocytosis (SAO) Normal Unknown [37, 45, 48, 49, 51, 107]
Hereditary elliptocytosis Unknown ↓ or normal Unknown Unknown [54, 58, 59]
Hereditary spherocytosis Unknown ↓ or normal Unknown Unknown [57, 59]
Erythropoietic protoporphyria Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown [84]
  1. ↓ Decreased, ↑increased. “Malaria susceptibility” refers to evidence for an association with reduced risk of severe or uncomplicated malaria. “Growth” refers to the ability of an individual parasite to replicate and egress from the erythrocyte. Studies performed with P. falciparum unless otherwise indicated.