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Table 2 Effect of ethanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of Vernonia amygdalina on Plasmodium berghei oocyst development in Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes

From: Plasmodium transmission blocking activities of Vernonia amygdalina extracts and isolated compounds

Group Mouse IDa Prevalence of infected mosquitoes (infected/total examined) Oocyst density by mouse replicate (95% CI) Oocyst density by treatment group (95% CI)
Ver-EtOH 1 76.9 (20/26) 27 (13–57) 37 (26–53)*
2 29.4 (5/17) 12 (5–28)
3 88.2 (30/34) 56 (32–96)
Sol-EtOH 4 100 (34/34) 417 (297–585) 374 (297–467)
5 96.4 (27/28) 439 (319–605)
6 95.7 (22/23) 260 (152–447)
Ver-H2O 7 100 (20/20) 72 (45–103) 123 (83–149)*
8 100 (20/20) 151 (101–161)
9 100 (20/20) 143 (104–182)
Sol-H2O 10 100 (20/20) 272 (225–319) 266 (200–300)
11 100 (20/20) 242 (186–298)
12 100 (20/20) 237 (190–284)
  1. The oocyst densities (geometric mean of oocysts/mosquito) were calculated on oocyst positive mosquitoes only.
  2. Ver-EtOH ethanolic V. amygdalina leaf extract, Ver-H 2 O aqueous V. amygdalina leaf extract, Sol-EtOH and Sol-H2O are solvent controls for the ethanolic and aqueous extract, respectively.
  3. * Oocyst density in extract treated groups significantly different with respect to the solvent controls; P < 0.05.
  4. aEach number represents one gametocytaemic treatment or control mouse used for the infection of a separate batch of mosquitoes (100–150 females per mouse).