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Table 3 Impact of Vernonia amygdalina leaf extracts on the development of early sporogonic stages in vitro

From: Plasmodium transmission blocking activities of Vernonia amygdalina extracts and isolated compounds

Test agents Experimenta Mean ESS counts (95% CI)b Percentage inhibition of ESS (95% CI)
Ver-EtOH 1 53 (46–60) 81.3 (79.1–83.7)
2 11 (3–19) 96.2 (93.4–99.1)
3 18 (15–20) 87.5 (85.8–89,14)
4 45 (41–50) 88 (86.7–89.4)
Sol-EtOH 1 285 (239–332)  
2 283 (261–306)  
3 141 (120–163)  
4 378 (310–446)  
Ver-H2O 5 51 (42–60) 14 (5–23.1)
6 23 (14–32) 38.7 (14.2–63.3)
Sol-H2O 5 59 (51–68)  
6 37 (32–42)  
  1. Ver-EtOH and Ver-H2O were tested at 50 µg/mL.
  2. Data are presented as mean early sporogonic stages (ESS) counts calculated from triplicate wells and percentages of ESS inhibition referred to solvent controls. Both parameters are presented with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).
  3. Ver-EtOH ethanolic V. amygdalina leaf extract, Ver-H 2 O aqueous V. amygdalina leaf extract, Sol-EtOH (dimethyl sulfoxide at 0.2%) and Sol-H2O (phosphate buffered saline) are solvent controls for the ethanolic and aqueous extract, respectively.
  4. aEach number represents one experiment conducted with gametocytaemic blood from a different mouse.
  5. bMean ESS counts are rounded to the nearest whole numbers.