Skip to main content

Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Table 5 Inhibitory activity of ethylacetate phase fractions from Vernonia amygdalina leaves against early sporogonic stages

From: Plasmodium transmission blocking activities of Vernonia amygdalina extracts and isolated compounds

Test agents Experimenta Mean ESS counts (95% CI)b Percentage inhibition of ESS (95% CI)
Fraction-2 1 27 (17–37) 0.7 (0–38.2)
3 80 (70–90) 16.0 (5.7–26.4)
4 221 (159–281) 0 (0–27.5)
Fraction-3 1 27 (20–33) 2.0 (0–25.6)
3 93 (77–109) 2.8 (0–19.8)
4 186 (128–245) 14.9 (0–41.7)
Fraction-5 1 29 (25–33) 0.0 (0–6.8)
3 40 (25–56) 57.8 (42.0–73.7)
4 215 (149–281) 1.8 (0–32.1)
Fraction-7 1 23 (13–33) 15.4 (0–51.0)
3 98 (84–113) 0 (0–12.2)
4 224 (211–238) 0 (0–3.7)
Fraction-9 1 31 (19–42) 0.0 (0–29.7)
3 57 (51–63) 40.4 (34.2–46.7)
4 195 (160–229) 11.1 (0–26.8)
Fraction-10 1 19 (10–27) 31.4 (0–63.7)
2 6 (4–8) 56.1 (26.2–86.0)
3 71 (57–84) 26.3 (12.5–40.1)
4 187 (161–213) 14.8 (3.0–26.6)
Fraction-11 1 1 (0–2) 96.3 (92.2–100)
2 0 100
3 0 (0–1) 99.7 (99–100)
4 1 (0–1) 99.7 (99.4–100)
5 0 100
Fraction-12 1 0 100
2 1 (0–2) 95.1 (85.6–100)
3 0 (0–1) 99.7 (99–100)
4 1 (0–2) 99.7 (99.1–100)
5 0 (0–1) 99.8 (99.3–100)
Fraction-13 1 0 100
2 0 (0–1) 97.6 (92.8–100)
3 0 100
4 0 (0–1) 99.8 (99.5–100)
5 1 (0–2) 99.5 (98.5–100)
Fraction-14 1 0 100
2 1 (0–2) 92.7 (84.4–100)
3 0 100
4 0 100
5 0 100
Solvent control (0.2% DMSO) 1 27 (22–33)  
2 14 (9–19)  
3 96 (85–106)  
4 219 (198–240)  
5 135 (111–158)  
  1. Fractions from ethylacetate phase were tested at 50 µg/mL concentration.
  2. Data are presented as mean early sporogonic stages (ESS) counts calculated from triplicate wells and percentages of ESS inhibition referred to solvent control. Both parameters are presented with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI.)
  3. aEach number represents one experiment conducted with gametocytaemic blood from a different mouse.
  4. bMean ESS counts are rounded to the nearest whole number.