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Table 1 Summary of integrated vector management (IVM) approach [9, 20, 53]

From: A systematic, realist review of zooprophylaxis for malaria control

Integrated vector management approach
Method Chemical Biological Environmental management
Definition Reduce the vector population by killing larvae or adult vectors with insecticides (e.g., DDT) Using natural predators or pathogens of vector species Disrupting vectoral habitat to reduce human-vector interaction and/or vector reproduction and survival
Sub-type Modification of human habitats and behaviours Environmental manipulation Environmental modification
Sub-type definition Locating human habitats and changing behaviour to reduce vector-host contact Long term change to physical environment to prevent vector habitats Temporary change to physical environment to prevent larval development
Examples Indoor residual spraying
Space spraying
Larvivorous fish
Nematodes
Bacteria
Sleeping under bed nets
Placing human settlements away from vector breeding sites
Screening doors and windows
Zooprophylaxis
Wetland and marsh drainage
Ditch filling
Tree planting