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Table 4 Risk factors for Plasmodium falciparum infection (uni- and multi-variable analysis, complete case and multiple imputation analyses, multilevel logistic model)

From: On-going malaria transmission in The Gambia despite high coverage of control interventions: a nationwide cross-sectional survey

  Univariable analysis Multivariable analysis (full model, complete case analysis) (n = 8,362) Multivariable analysis (full model, multiple imputation analysis) (n = 9,094, 50 imputations)
OR (95 % CI) P value OR (95 % CI) P value OR (95 % CI) P value
Age
 ≤5 years (N = 2,477) 1   1   1  
 5–14.9 years (N = 2,811) 1.55 (1.32–1.82) <0.001 1.90 (1.60–2.26) <0.001 1.84 (1.56–2.18) <0.001
 ≥15 years (N = 3,791) 1.10 (0.94–1.29) 0.24 1.48 (1.24–1.78) <0.001 1.43 (1.20–1.71) <0.001
Gender
 Male (N = 5,417) 1   1   1  
 Female (N = 3,670) 0.86 (0.76–0.98) 0.02 0.87 (0.76–1.00) 0.05 0.85 (0.75–0.97) 0.01
Anaemia
 No anaemia (N = 2,198) 1   1   1  
 Mild (N = 3,783) 1.02 (0.85–1.22) 0.85 1.08 (0.89–1.32) 0.42 1.08 (0.89–1.30) 0.44
 Moderate (N = 2,671) 1.38 (1.15–1.65) <0.001 1.62 (1.32–1.99) <0.001 1.62 (1.33–1.97) <0.001
 Severe (N = 137) 2.44 (1.84–3.25) <0.001 3.11(2.27–4.26) <0.001 3.05 (2.25–4.13) <0.001
Has slept under a LLIN last night
 No (N = 377) 1   1   1  
 Yes (N = 8,244) 0.58 (0.41–0.81) <0.001 0.58 (0.41–0.82) 0.003 0.61 (0.43–0.86) 0.005
Has slept out doors
 No (N = 5,257) 1   1   1  
 Yes (N = 3,807) 1.04 (0.92–1.19) 0.51 1.01(0.88–1.16) 0.87 1.04 (0.91–1.18) 0.56
Indoor residual spraying
 No (N = 1,883) 1      
 Yes (N = 7,170) 0.86 (0.59–1.27) 0.46 0.86 (0.57–1.29) 0.45 0.92 (0.63–1.36) 0.69
Has slept out in the fields
 No (N = 8,727) 1   1   1  
 Yes (N = 321) 0.78 (0.51–1.19) 0.26 0.81 (0.51–1.28) 0.37 0.83 (0.54–1.27) 0.38
Used Artemether-lumefantrine in past week
 No (N = 8,881) 1   1   1  
 Yes (N = 174) 0.78 (0.51–1.20) 0.98 0.77 (0.49–1.20) 0.25 0.75 (0.48–1.15) 0.19