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Table 1 Associations between measures of urbanicity and the household density of mosquitoes stratified by study site

From: Associations between urbanicity and malaria at local scales in Uganda

Urbanicity metric Exposure categories Walukuba Kihihi Nagongera
HDM (nights of collection)a IRRb (95 % CI) P HDM (nights of collection)a IRRb (95 % CI) P HDM (nights of collection)a IRRb (95 % CI) P
Household densityc ≤80 2.08 (327) 0.30 (0.16–0.59) <0.001 4.68 (2086) 0.68 (0.28–1.64) 0.39 43.3 (2329) N/A  
>80 0.90 (1857) 3.58 (166) None
NDVId >0.45 1.85 (707) 0.35 (0.21–0.57) <0.001 4.78 (1704) 0.83 (0.48–1.42) 0.49 41.1 (1660) 1.16 (0.87–1.54) 0.32
≤0.45 0.71 (1477) 4.04 (548) 48.7 (669)
Night-time lights ≤3 1.33 (1526) 0.32 (0.19–0.55) <0.001 4.60 (2252) N/A   43.3 (2329) N/A  
>3 0.49 (658) None None
Land cover ≤20 % 1.37 (1265) 0.42 (0.26–0.69) 0.001 Not measured    Not measured   
>20 % 0.68 (919)
Composite scoree Low 1.37 (1501) 0.28 (0.17–0.48) <0.001 4.68 (2086) 0.68 (0.28–1.64) 0.39 43.3 (2329) N/A  
High 0.44 (683) 3.58 (166) None
  1. aHousehold density of mosquitoes (number of adult female anophelines caught per nights of collection)
  2. bIncidence rate ratio
  3. cNumber of households within 100 m radius from participating household
  4. dNormalized difference vegetation index
  5. e1 point for each individual urbanicity metric: Walukuba (low = 0–2, high = 3–4), Kihihi and Nagongera (low = 0–1, high = 2)