Skip to main content

Table 3 Associations between measures of urbanicity and incidence of malaria stratified by study site

From: Associations between urbanicity and malaria at local scales in Uganda

Urbanicity metric Exposure categories Walukuba Kihihi Nagongera
Malaria incidence (PY)a IRRb (95 % CI) P Malaria incidence (PY)a IRRb (95 % CI) P Malaria incidence (PY)a IRRb (95 % CI) P
Household densityc ≤80 0.35 (94.2) 1.02 (0.58–1.81) 0.94 1.21 (720.2) 0.48 (0.20–1.17) 0.11 2.17 (746.9) N/A  
>80 0.36 (512.5) 0.60 (51.6) None
NDVId >0.45 0.43 (197.6) 0.77 (0.46–1.28) 0.31 1.19 (586.4) 0.97 (0.64–1.45) 0.87 1.91 (519.6) 1.35 (1.07–1.70) 0.01
≤0.45 0.32 (409.1) 1.11 (185.3) 2.75 (227.3)
Night-time lights ≤3 0.36 (418.3) 1.04 (0.62–1.75) 0.88 1.17 (771.8) N/A   2.17 (746.9) N/A  
>3 0.36 (188.4) None None
Land cover ≤20 % 0.37 (346.6) 1.04 (0.62–1.73) 0.89 Not measured    Not measured   
>20 % 0.35 (260.1)
Composite scoree Low 0.37 (419.0) 0.97 (0.57–1.65) 0.92 1.21 (720.2) 0.48 (0.20–1.17) 0.11 2.17 (746.9) N/A  
High 0.34 (187.7) 0.60 (51.6) None
  1. aNumber of episodes of malaria per person years (PY) of follow-up
  2. bIncidence rate ratio adjusted for mean age during follow-up and repeated measures in the same household
  3. cNumber of households within 100 m radius from a participating household
  4. dNormalized difference vegetation index
  5. e1 point for each individual urbanicity metric: Walukuba (low = 0–2, high = 3–4), Kihihi and Nagongera (low = 0–1, high = 2)